Stage: A Multiple Robot Simulator

Richard T. Vaughan

This report is a manual for the Stage software. Stage simulates (0$<$N$<$254) mobile robots moving in and sensing a two-dimensional bitmapped environment, controlled through Player. Player provides a powerful, flexible network interface to a collection of sensor and actuator devices (usually a robot); Stage provides virtual Player devices. Various sensor models are provided, including sonar, scanning laser rangefinder, a pan-tilt-zoom camera, color blob tracking and odometry. Stage provides good enough fidelity to transfer controllers designed in simulation to the real robots, yet it is efficient enough to simulate large populations.