23.4.2.1 OCR Systems, General

Chapter Contents (Back)
OCR. Hardware.

Casey, R.G., Nagy, G.,
An Autonomous Reading Machine,
TC(17), 1968, pp. 492-503. BibRef 6800

Stevens, M.E.[Mary Elizabeth],
Introduction to the special issue on Optical Character Recognition (OCR),
PR(2), No. 3, September 1970, pp. 147-150.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Balm, G.J.,
An introduction to optical character reader considerations,
PR(2), No. 3, September 1970, pp. 151-152.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Sheinberg, I.[Israel],
The INPUT 2 Document Reader (a new optical character recognition system),
PR(2), No. 3, September 1970, pp. 167-173.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Bilgutay, I.M.[Ilhan M.],
Optical Character Reading System and Bar Code Font Therefor,
US_Patent3,744,025, July 3, 1973.
WWW Version. BibRef 7307

Flaherty, L.P.[Larry Paul], Hale, W.A.[William Alton],
Recognition Unit for Optical Character Reading System,
US_Patent3,761,876, September 25, 1973.
WWW Version. BibRef 7309

Shepard, D.H.[David H.],
Multiple-Scanner Character Reading System,
US_Patent3,582,884, June 1, 1971.
WWW Version. BibRef 7106
And: US_Patent3,806,871, April 23, 1974.
WWW Version. BibRef

Shepard, D.H.[David H.],
Character Reading System Controlled by Preprinted Program Control Characters on Document Form,
US_Patent3,820,067, June 25, 1974.
WWW Version. BibRef 7406

Busby, J.W.[John W.],
Character Reading System,
US_Patent3,833,882, September 03, 1974.
WWW Version. BibRef 7409

McGregor, A.D.[Arvin D.], Holmes, W.E.[William E.],
Double Read System for Character Recognition Systems,
US_Patent3,938,089, February 10, 1976.
WWW Version. BibRef 7602

Holt, A.W.[Arthur W.],
The impact of new hardware on OCR designs,
PR(8), No. 2, April 1976, pp. 99-105.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

van Bilzem, J.F.[Jan Frederik], Spanjersberg, A.A.[Arie Adriaan], van Staveren, J.[Joannes],
Method and device for the recognition of characters, preferably of figures,
US_Patent3,999,161, 12/21/1976.
HTML Version. BibRef 7612

Spanjersberg, A.A.[Arie Adriaan],
Method for recognizing characters,
US_Patent4,066,999, Jan 3, 1978
WWW Version. BibRef 7801

Troxel, D.E.,
Feature selection for low error rate OCR,
PR(8), No. 2, April 1976, pp. 73-76.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Giuliano, E., Paita, O., Stringa, L.,
Electronic Character-Reading System,
US_Patent4,047,152, September 1977.
WWW Version. BibRef 7709

Engelmann, R.H.[Rudolph H.],
Optical character recognition device,
US_Patent4,130,819, 06/22/1977.
HTML Version. BibRef 7706

Ito, C.[Chiaki],
Character recognition equipment,
US_Patent4,061,998, 12/06/1977.
HTML Version. BibRef 7712

Fahey, W.D.[William D.],
Character recognition apparatus for serially comparing an unknown character with a plurality of reference characters,
US_Patent4,110,737, 08/29/1978.
HTML Version. BibRef 7808

Su, C.[Chauchang],
Pre-processing and feature extraction system for character recognition,
US_Patent4,162,482, 07/24/1979
HTML Version. BibRef 7907

Izawa, K.[Koji], Komatsu, K.[Kouichi], Okamura, M.[Mitsuyoshi],
Character reading system,
US_Patent4,185,271, January 22, 1980.
WWW Version. BibRef 8001

Maussion, D.[Daniel],
Character Reading System,
US_Patent4,246,473, December 20, 1981.
WWW Version. BibRef 8112

Isshiki, I.[Isao], Ohoka, A.[Akihiro], Sato, K.[Koji],
Character Reading System,
US_Patent4,180,800, December 25, 1979.
WWW Version. BibRef 7912

Isshiki, I.[Isao], Sato, K.[Koji], Sunago, K.[Katsuyoshi], Ohoka, A.[Akihiro], Akatsuka, M.[Masayuki],
Optical Character Reading System,
US_Patent4,364,023, December 14, 1982.
WWW Version. BibRef 8212

Isshiki, I.[Isao], Ohoka, A.[Akihiro], Sakamoto, F.[Fukuma], Tanaka, M.[Masatoshi], Sato, K.[Koji],
Optical Character Reading System [First of two],
US_Patent4,355,301, October 19, 1982.
WWW Version. BibRef 8210

Schapira, A.D.[Alexander D.],
Apparatus and method for character recognition,
US_Patent4,308,523, 12/29/1981.
HTML Version. BibRef 8112

Smolinska, B.,
Optical Correlator for Recognizing Characters Printed on Paper,
PR(16), No. 6, 1983, pp. 551-556.
WWW Version. BibRef 8300

Character Recognition Apparatus,
IBMTech(28), No. 9, February 1986, pp. 3990-3993. BibRef 8602

Casey, R.G., and Jih, C.R.,
A Processor-Based OCR System,
IBMRD(27), No. 4, July 1983, pp. 386-399. BibRef 8307

Nally, R.B.[Robert B.], Vance, E.J.[Eric J.], Leung, P.C.[Patrick C.], Akister, J.F.[James F.],
Matrix Character Reading System,
US_Patent4,490,853, December 25, 1984.
WWW Version. BibRef 8412

Ito, K.[Koji], Onishi, M.[Masanori], Hayashi, H.[Hisao],
Character information separating apparatus for printed character reading systems,
US_Patent4,527,283, July 2, 1985
WWW Version. BibRef 8507

Hongo, Y.[Yasuo],
Character reader,
US_Patent4,630,308, 12/16/1986.
HTML Version. BibRef 8612
Earlier:
Pattern recognition apparatus,
US_Patent4,556,985, 12/03/1985.
HTML Version. Based on horizontal, vertical, diagonal vectors. BibRef

Masatsugu, C.H.[Cary H.], Denning, B.S.[Bruce S.], Nelson, M.N.[Martin N.],
Method and apparatus for character recognition employing a dead-band correlator,
US_Patent4,700,401, 10/13/1987.
HTML Version. BibRef 8710

Wolberg, G.,
A Syntactic Omni-Font Character Recognition System,
PRAI(1), 1987, pp. 303-322. BibRef 8700
Earlier: CVPR86(168-173). BibRef

Kahan, A., Pavlidis, T., and Baird, H.S.,
On the Recognition of Printed Characters of any Font and Size,
PAMI(9), No. 2, March 1987, pp. 274-288. BibRef 8703
Earlier: A3, A1, A2:
Components of an Omnifont Page Reader,
ICPR86(344-348). BibRef

Kobayashi, K.[Kiyohiko], Sakurai, A.[Akira], Sato, G.[Gen],
Character recognition method and system capable of recognizing slant characters,
US_Patent4,757,551, 07/12/1988.
HTML Version. Outlines of characters. BibRef 8807

Scott, W.C.[Warner C.],
Method of optical character recognition,
US_Patent4,773,098, 09/20/1988.
HTML Version. BibRef 0009
Earlier:
Character recognition method and apparatus,
US_Patent4,415,880, 11/15/1983.
HTML Version. Based on features of character outline. BibRef

Gaborski, R.S.[Roger S.], Beato, L.J.[Louis J.], Barski, L.L.[Lori L.], Tan, H.L.[Hin-Leong], Assad, A.M.[Andrew M.], Dutton, D.L.[Dawn L.],
Optical character recognition neural network system for machine-printed characters,
US_Patent5,048,097, Sep 10, 1991
WWW Version. BibRef 9109

Beato, L.J.[Louis J.],
Character normalization using an elliptical sampling window for optical character recognition,
US_Patent4,977,602, Dec 11, 1990
WWW Version. BibRef 9012

Yamanari, M.[Masaya],
Character reading system and method,
US_Patent5,153,927, October 6, 1992
WWW Version. BibRef 9210

Martin, G.J.[Gregory J.], Chen, R.Y.[Robert Y.], Cook, J.F.[John F.], Mason, J.A.[James A.],
Character recognition method using statistically weighted correlation,
US_Patent5,159,644, Oct 27, 1992
WWW Version. BibRef 9210

Mason, J.A.[James A.], Martin, G.J.[Gregory J.], Chen, R.Y.[Robert Y.], Cook, J.F.[John F.],
Character recognition method using optimally weighted correlation,
US_Patent5,204,914, Apr 20, 1993
WWW Version. BibRef 9304

Sinha, R.M.K., Prasada, B., Houle, G.F., and Sabourin, M.,
Hybrid Contextual Text Recognition with String Matching,
PAMI(15), No. 9, September 1993, pp. 915-925.
IEEE DOI Link On multifont text, 200DPI scanner, a character rate of 98%. BibRef 9309

Sato, T.[Toshio],
Character Reading System,
US_Patent5,459,797, December 17, 1995.
WWW Version. BibRef 9512

Bernzott, P.[Philip], Dilworth, J.[John], George, D.[David], Higgins, B.[Bryan], Knight, J.[Jeremy],
Optical character recognition method and apparatus,
US_Patent5,436,983, Jul 25, 1995
WWW Version. BibRef 9507

Cheng, H.D., Xia, D.C.,
A Novel Parallel Approach to Character-Recognition and Its VLSI Implementation,
PR(29), No. 1, January 1996, pp. 97-119.
WWW Version. BibRef 9601

Bokser, M.[Mindy], Pon, L.[Leonard], Yang, J.[Jun], Choy, K.[Kenneth],
Pattern recognition employing arbitrary segmentation and compound probabilistic evaluation,
US_Patent5,862,259, Jan 19, 1999
WWW Version. Caere Corp BibRef 9901

Xu, Y.H.[Yi-Hong], Nagy, G.[George],
Prototype Extraction and Adaptive OCR,
PAMI(21), No. 12, December 1999, pp. 1280-1296.
IEEE DOI Link 0001
Tune OCR to the document. BibRef

Prevost, L.[Lionel], Milgram, M.[Maurice],
Modelizing character allographs in omni-scriptor frame: A New Non-Supervised Clustering Algorithm,
PRL(21), No. 3, March 2000, pp. 295-302. 0004
BibRef
Earlier:
Automatic Allograph Selection and Multiple Expert Classification for Totally Unconstrained Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICPR98(Vol I: 381-383).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef
Earlier:
Static and Dynamic Classifier Fusion for Character Recognition,
ICDAR97(499-506).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Andrianasy, F.[Fidimahery], Milgram, M.[Maurice],
Dynamic character recognition using an elastic matching,
CAIP95(888-893).
Springer DOI Link 9509
BibRef

Nemoto, N.[Naoyuki], Takahashi, H.[Hiroyasu],
Optical character recognition system and method using special normalization for special characters,
US_Patent6,011,879, Jan 4, 2000
WWW Version. BibRef 0001

Prevost, L.[Lionel], Oudot, L.[Loc], Moises, A.[Alvaro], Michel-Sendis, C.[Christian], Milgram, M.[Maurice],
Hybrid generative/discriminative classifier for unconstrained character recognition,
PRL(26), No. 12, September 2005, pp. 1840-1848.
WWW Version. 0508
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A4, A3, A2, A5:
Combining model-based and discriminative classifiers: Application to handwritten character recognition,
ICDAR03(31-35).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
See also Self-supervised adaptation for on-line script text recognition. BibRef

Park, J.[Jaehwa], Govindaraju, V.[Venu], Srihari, S.N.[Sargur N.],
OCR in a Hierarchical Feature Space,
PAMI(22), No. 4, April 2000, pp. 400-407.
IEEE DOI Link 0006
BibRef

Taghva, K.[Kazem], Stofsky, E.[Eric],
OCRSpell: An Interactive Spelling Correction System for OCR Errors in Text,
IJDAR(3), No. 3, 2001, pp. 125-137.
HTML Version. 0105
BibRef

Ball, S.R.[Stuart R.],
Character Recognition Method,
US_Patent6,327,378, December 4, 2001.
WWW Version. BibRef 0112

Motoiwa, K.[Kouji],
Document character reading system,
US_Patent6,343,149, January 29, 2002
WWW Version. BibRef 0201

Hussmann, S.[Stephan], Deng, P.W.P.[Peter Wei-Ping],
A high-speed optical mark reader hardware implementation at low cost using programmable logic,
RealTimeImg(11), No. 1, February 2005, pp. 19-30.
WWW Version. 0506
BibRef

Polonowski, J.P.[Jean-Pierre],
Character recognition system and method,
US_Patent7,327,883, Feb 5, 2003
WWW Version. BibRef 0302

Taron, M.[Maxime], Paragios, N.[Nikos], Jolly, M.P.[Marie-Pierre],
Registration with Uncertainties and Statistical Modeling of Shapes with Variable Metric Kernels,
PAMI(31), No. 1, January 2009, pp. 99-113.
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef
Earlier:
Modelling Shapes with Uncertainties: Higher Order Polynomials, Variable Bandwidth Kernels and Non Parametric Density Estimation,
ICCV05(II: 1659-1666).
IEEE DOI Link 0510
2-D characters. BibRef

Thomas, A.O.[Achint Oommen], Rusu, A.[Amalia], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Synthetic handwritten CAPTCHAs,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3365-3373.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
CAPTCHA. HIP; CAPTCHA; Handwriting generation BibRef

Rusu, A.[Amalia], Thomas, A.O.[Achint Oommen], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Generation and use of handwritten CAPTCHAs,
IJDAR(13), No. 1, March 2010, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 1003
BibRef

Mori, M.[Minoru], Sawaki, M.[Minako], Yamato, J.[Junji],
Robust Character Recognition Using Adaptive Feature Extraction Method,
IEICE(E93-D), No. 1, January 2010, pp. 125-133.
WWW Version. 1001
BibRef
Earlier:
Robust character recognition using adaptive feature extraction,
IVCNZ08(1-6).
IEEE DOI Link 0811
BibRef

Donoser, M.[Michael], Wagner, S.[Silke], Bischof, H.[Horst],
Context information from search engines for document recognition,
PRL(31), No. 8, 1 June 2010, pp. 750-754.
Elsevier DOI Link 1004
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A3, A2:
Using web search engines to improve text recognition,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
Context; Text recognition; Web search engines BibRef

Xiu, P.P.[Ping-Ping], Baird, H.S.[Henry S.],
Whole-Book Recognition,
PAMI(34), No. 12, December 2012, pp. 2467-2480.
IEEE DOI Link 1210
BibRef
Earlier:
Incorporating Linguistic Model Adaptation into Whole-Book Recognition,
ICPR10(2057-2060).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef
Earlier:
Scaling Up Whole-Book Recognition,
ICDAR09(698-702).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
One page is easy, do the whole book. BibRef

Katsuyama, Y.[Yutaka], Hotta, Y.[Yoshinobu], Omachi, M.[Masako], Omachi, S.[Shinichiro],
High Speed and High Accuracy Pre-Classification Method for OCR: Margin Added Hashing,
IEICE(E96-D), No. 9, September 2013, pp. 2087-2095.
WWW Version. 1309
BibRef


Sankaran, N., Jawahar, C.V.,
Error Detection in Highly Inflectional Languages,
ICDAR13(1135-1139)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
error detection BibRef

Cutter, M.P., Manduchi, R.,
Real Time Camera Phone Guidance for Compliant Document Image Acquisition without Sight,
ICDAR13(408-412)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Guidance to take picture for OCR. cameras BibRef

Kobayashi, T., Iwamura, M., Matsuda, T., Kise, K.,
An Anytime Algorithm for Camera-Based Character Recognition,
ICDAR13(1140-1144)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
character recognition BibRef

Agarwal, A., Garg, R., Chaudhury, S.,
Greedy Search for Active Learning of OCR,
ICDAR13(837-841)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
image classification BibRef

Wemhoener, D., Yalniz, I.Z., Manmatha, R.,
Creating an Improved Version Using Noisy OCR from Multiple Editions,
ICDAR13(160-164)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
digital libraries BibRef

Cruz-Perez, C.[Claudia], Starostenko, O.[Oleg], Uceda-Ponga, F.[Fernando], Alarcon-Aquino, V.[Vicente], Reyes-Cabrera, L.[Leobardo],
Breaking reCAPTCHAs with Unpredictable Collapse: Heuristic Character Segmentation and Recognition,
MCPR12(155-165).
Springer DOI Link 1208
CAPTCHA. BibRef

Santosh, K.C.,
Character Recognition Based on DTW-Radon,
ICDAR11(264-268).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Thomas, A.O.[Achint O.], Choudhury, S.[Sulabh], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Leveraging the Mixed-Text Segmentation Problem to Design Secure Handwritten CAPTCHAs,
FHR10(13-18).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Wang, K.[Kai], Jin, J.M.[Jian-Ming], Wang, Q.R.[Qing-Ren],
High Performance Chinese/English Mixed OCR with Character Level Language Identification,
ICDAR09(406-410).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Zhang, J.[Jing], Liu, W.Y.[Wen-Yin],
A Pixel-level Statistical Structural Descriptor for Shape Measure and Recognition,
ICDAR09(386-390).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Uchida, S., Sakai, M., Iwamura, M., Omachi, S., Kise, K.,
Extraction of Embedded Class Information from Universal Character Pattern,
ICDAR07(437-441).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
Pattern designed to be easily machine read even with distortions. BibRef

Fu, Q., Ding, X., Li, T., Liu, C.,
An Effective and Practical Classifier Fusion Strategy for Improving Handwritten Character Recognition,
ICDAR07(1038-1042).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Kim, S., Park, J., Kwon, Y.B.,
An Embedded OCR Software Architecture for Enhancing Portability,
ICDAR07(1004-1008).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Wang, K., Wang, Q.,
A High Performance European OCR System,
ICDAR07(232-236).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Goto, H.[Hideaki],
OCRGrid: A Platform for Distributed and Cooperative OCR Systems,
ICPR06(II: 982-985).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Lucas, S.M., Cho, K.T.[Kyu Tae],
Fast convolutional OCR with the scanning N-tuple grid,
ICDAR05(II: 799-803).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Natarajan, P.[Prem], Sundaram, R., Prasad, R.[Rohit], MacRostie, E.,
Character duration modeling for speed improvements in the BBN Byblos OCR system,
ICDAR05(II: 1136-1140).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Decerbo, M., Natarajan, P.[Premkumar], Prasad, R.[Rohit], MacRostie, E., Ravindran, A.[Arun],
Performance improvements to the BBN Byblos OCR system,
ICDAR05(I: 411-415).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
See also BBN byblos Japanese OCR system, The. BibRef

Savchynskyy, B., Kamotskyy, O.,
Character templates learning for textual images recognition as an example of learning in structural recognition,
DIAL06(88-95).
IEEE DOI Link 0604
Single font recognition. Learning on the text line, not single characters. BibRef

Baird, H.S., Moll, M.A., Wang, S.Y.[Sui-Yu],
ScatterType: a legible but hard-to-segment CAPTCHA,
ICDAR05(II: 935-939).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
CAPTCHA. BibRef

Wang, S.Y.[Sui-Yu], Bentley, J.L.[Jon L.],
CAPTCHA Challenge Tradeoffs: Familiarity of Strings versus Degradation of Images,
ICPR06(III: 164-167).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
CAPTCHA. BibRef

Doguscu, S.[Sema], Unel, M.[Mustafa],
Character Recognition Using Canonical Invariants,
ICIAR04(I: 432-439).
WWW Version. 0409
BibRef

Moy, G., Jones, N., Harkless, C., Potter, R.,
Distortion estimation techniques in solving visual CAPTCHAs,
CVPR04(II: 23-28).
IEEE DOI Link 0408
CAPTCHA. Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart. (embed words in noise to make sure a person is there.) BibRef

Hase, H., Shinokawa, T., Yoneda, M., Suen, C.Y.,
Recognition of rotated characters by Eigen-space,
ICDAR03(731-735).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Character recognition by adaptive statistical similarity,
ICDAR03(158-162).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Sakano, H.,
Genetic translator: how to apply query learning to practical OCR,
ICPR02(III: 184-187).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

Ho, T.K.[Tin Kam], Nagy, G.[George],
Exploration of contextual constraints for character pre-classification,
ICDAR01(450-454).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef
Earlier:
OCR with no Shape Training,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 27-30).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
BibRef

Nakano, Y.,
Needs and Seeds in Character Recognition,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 140-146).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
Review. BibRef

Huang, Y.S., Tu, L.T., Shie, A.J., Shyu, I.I., Liang, M.C., Tsay, R.Y., Huang, P.K., Liu, K., Suen, C.Y.,
A Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Character Recognition Systems,
ICDAR97(Poste) 9708
In program, not in proceedings. BibRef

Cinque, L., di Zenzo, S., Levialdi, S.,
Recognition of rotated characters by inexact matching,
CIAP95(600-605).
Springer DOI Link 9509
BibRef

Takahashi, H.,
Neural network architectures for rotated character recognition,
ICPR92(II:623-626).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Menu, E., Lefrere, L., Lecourtier, Y.[Yves],
A new method of distortion-invariant character recognition,
ICPR92(II:599-602).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Font Recognition, Multiple Fonts, Script Type, etc. .


Last update:Aug 30, 2014 at 15:34:18