23.4.2.2 Font Recognition, Multiple Fonts, Script Type, etc.

Chapter Contents (Back)
Font Recognition. Multi-Font. Multi-Script.

Kopec, G.E.,
Least-squares font metric estimation from images,
IP(2), No. 4, October 1993, pp. 510-519.
IEEE DOI Link 0402
BibRef

Liu, C.N., and Shelton, G.L.,
An Experimental Investigation of a Mixed Font Print Recognition System,
TC(15), No. 6, December 1966, pp. 916-925. The IBM font recognition work using N-Tuples. BibRef 6612

Morris, R.A.[Robert A.],
Classification of digital typefaces using spectral signatures,
PR(25), No. 8, August 1992, pp. 869-876.
WWW Version. 0401
BibRef

Wang, J.[Jin], Jean, J.[Jack],
Resolving multifont character confusion with neural networks,
PR(26), No. 1, January 1993, pp. 175-187.
WWW Version. 0401
BibRef

Khoubyari, S., Hull, J.J.,
Font and Function Word Identification in Document Recognition,
CVIU(63), No. 1, January 1996, pp. 66-74.
DOI Link BibRef 9601

Augusteijn, M.F., Warrender, C.E.,
Image Indexing Applied to Typewriter Font Identification,
NeurCompApp(4), No. 4, 1996, pp. 209-217. 9701
BibRef

Krtolica, R.V.[Radovan V.], Malitsky, S.[Sofya],
Multifont optical character recognition using a box connectivity approach,
US_Patent5,539,840, 07/23/1996.
HTML Version. Features computed within the bounding rectangle. BibRef 9607

Krtolica, R.V.[Radovan V.], Melen, R.D.[Roger D.],
Image recognition through localized interpretation,
US_Patent6,259,814, Jul 10, 2001
WWW Version. OCR BibRef 0107

Krtolica, R.V.,
Learning Character Recognition by Localized Interpretation of Character-Images,
ICIP97(III: 292-295).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9700

Zramdini, A.[Abdelwahab], and Ingold, R.[Rolf],
Optical Font Recognition Using Typographical Features,
PAMI(20), No. 8, August 1998, pp. 877-882.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9808
Earlier:
ApOFIS: an A priori optical font identification system,
CIAP95(527-532).
Springer DOI Link 9509
Identify the font -- typeface, weight, slope and size -- not the characters. BibRef

Omachi, S.[Shin'ichiro], Inoue, M.[Masaki], Aso, H.[Hirotomo],
Structure Extraction from Decorated Characters Using Multiscale Images,
PAMI(23), No. 3, March 2001, pp. 315-322.
IEEE DOI Link 0103
BibRef
Earlier:
Structure Extraction from Various Kinds of Decorated Characters Using Multi-scale Images,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 455-458).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
Decorated characters: Fancy characters, not the ones in illuminated manuscripts. Multiscale images are used for structure extraction, then match on the character structure. BibRef

Iwamura, M., Negishi, K., Omachi, S., Aso, H.,
Isolated character recognition by searching feature points,
ICDAR05(II: 1035-1039).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Chaudhuri, B.B., Garain, U.,
Extraction of type style-based meta-information from imaged documents,
IJDAR(3), No. 3, 2001, pp. 138-149.
HTML Version. 0105
BibRef

Zhu, Y.[Yong], Tan, T.N.[Tie-Niu], Wang, Y.H.[Yun-Hong],
Font Recognition Based on Global Texture Analysis,
PAMI(23), No. 10, October 2001, pp. 1192-1200.
IEEE DOI Link 0110
Find the font from texture features, not analysis of individual characters. BibRef

Pal, U., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Identification of different script lines from multi-script documents,
IVC(20), No. 13-14, December 2002, pp. 945-954.
WWW Version. 0212
BibRef
And: Correction: IVC(21), No. 11, October 2003, pp. 1017.
WWW Version. 0310
BibRef

Pal, U., Sinha, S., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Multi-oriented English Text Line Identification,
SCIA03(1146-1153).
WWW Version. 0310
BibRef

Sharma, N., Chanda, S., Pal, U., Blumenstein, M.,
Word-Wise Script Identification from Video Frames,
ICDAR13(867-871)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Zernike polynomials BibRef

Sinha, S.[Suranjit], Pal, U.[Umapada], Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Word-Wise Script Identification from Indian Documents,
DAS04(310-321).
WWW Version. 0505
BibRef

Pal, U., Sinha, S., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Multi-script line identification from Indian documents,
ICDAR03(880-884).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Xafopoulos, A., Kotropoulos, C., Almpanidis, G., Pitas, I.,
Language identification in web documents using discrete HMMs,
PR(37), No. 3, March 2004, pp. 583-594.
WWW Version. 0401
BibRef

Namboodiri, A.M.[Anoop M.], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Online Handwritten Script Recognition,
PAMI(26), No. 1, January 2004, pp. 124-130.
IEEE Abstract. 0401
BibRef
Earlier:
On-line script recognition,
ICPR02(III: 736-739).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
Classify words and lines into Arabic, Cyrillic, Devnagari, Han, Hebrew, or Roman script. Use 11 spatial and temporal features for the strokes. Roughly 87% on words, 95% on 5-7 word lines. BibRef

Sarkar, P.[Prateek], Nagy, G.[George],
Style Consistent Classification of Isogenous Patterns,
PAMI(27), No. 1, January 2005, pp. 88-98.
IEEE Abstract. 0412
BibRef
Earlier:
Style-consistency in isogenous patterns,
ICDAR01(1169-1174).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef
And: A2, A1:
Document style census for OCR,
DIAL04(134-147).
IEEE DOI Link 0404
BibRef
Earlier:
Classification of Style-Constrained Pattern-Fields,
ICPR00(Vol II: 855-858).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
Classification by fields, i.e. a string is usually the same font. Extract regions of the same style (e.g. font). See also Analytical Results on Style-Constrained Bayesian Classification of Pattern Fields. BibRef

Sarkar, P.[Prateek],
Image classification: Classifying distributions of visual features,
ICPR06(II: 472-475).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Sarkar, P.[Prateek],
An iterative algorithm for optimal style conscious field classification,
ICPR02(IV: 243-246).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

AvilÚs-Cruz, C.[Carlos], Rangel-Kuoppa, R.[Risto], Reyes-Ayala, M.[Mario], Andrade-Gonzalez, A., Escarela-Perez, R.[Rafael],
High-order statistical texture analysis--font recognition applied,
PRL(26), No. 2, 15 January 2005, pp. 135-145.
WWW Version. 0501
Identify the font from texture. BibRef

Busch, A.[Andrew], Boles, W.W.[Wageeh W.], Sridharan, S.[Sridha],
Texture for Script Identification,
PAMI(27), No. 11, November 2005, pp. 1720-1732.
IEEE DOI Link 0510
BibRef

Busch, A.[Andrew],
Multi-font Script Identification Using Texture-Based Features,
ICIAR06(II: 844-852).
Springer DOI Link 0610
BibRef

Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing], Chen, L.[Li], Wu, T.[Tao],
Character Independent Font Recognition on a Single Chinese Character,
PAMI(29), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 195-204.
IEEE DOI Link 0701
Font recognition for any unknown Chinese Character. Font recognition improves with multiple characters. BibRef

Joshi, G.D.[Gopal Datt], Garg, S.[Saurabh], Sivaswamy, J.[Jayanthi],
A generalised framework for script identification,
IJDAR(10), No. 2, November 2007, pp. 55-68.
Springer DOI Link 0711
BibRef
Earlier:
Script Identification from Indian Documents,
DAS06(255-267).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Hiremath, P.S., Shivashankar, S.,
Wavelet based co-occurrence histogram features for texture classification with an application to script identification in a document image,
PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1182-1189.
WWW Version. 0711
Wavelet transform; Texture features; Texture classification; Script identification; Document image; Gabor filters BibRef

Pati, P.B.[Peeta Basa], Ramakrishnan, A.G.,
Word level multi-script identification,
PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1218-1229.
WWW Version. 0711
Gabor filter; DCT; Script identification BibRef

Ghosh, D.[Debashis], Dube, T.[Tulika], Shivaprasad, A.[Adamane],
Script Recognition: A Review,
PAMI(32), No. 12, December 2010, pp. 2142-2161.
IEEE DOI Link 1011
Survey, Script Recognition. Identify the script before recognition. BibRef

Kae, A.[Andrew], Smith, D.A.[David A.], Learned-Miller, E.G.[Erik G.],
Learning on the Fly: A Font-Free Approach Toward Multilingual OCR,
IJDAR(14), No. 3, September 2011, pp. 289-301.
WWW Version. 1109
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A3, only:
Learning on the Fly: Font-Free Approaches to Difficult OCR Problems,
ICDAR09(571-575).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Solli, M.[Martin], Lenz, R.[Reiner],
A Font Search Engine for Large Font Databases,
ELCVIA(10), No. 1, 2011, pp. xx-yy.
WWW Version. 1112
BibRef
Earlier:
FyFont: Find-your-Font in Large Font Databases,
SCIA07(432-441).
Springer DOI Link 0706
BibRef

Alabert, A.[Aureli], Rangel, L.M.[Luz Ma.],
Classifying the typefaces of the Gutenberg 42-line bible,
IJDAR(14), No. 4, December 2011, pp. 303-317.
WWW Version. 1112
BibRef

Zagoris, K.[Konstantinos], Pratikakis, I.[Ioannis], Antonacopoulos, A.[Apostolos], Gatos, B.[Basilis], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Distinction between handwritten and machine-printed text based on the bag of visual words model,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1051-1062.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
Bag of visual words BibRef

Kacem, A.[Afef], Saidani, A.[Asma], Belaid, A.[Abdel],
How to separate between Machine-Printed/Handwritten and Arabic/Latin Words?,
ELCVIA(13), No. 1, 2014, pp. xx-yy.
WWW Version. 1405
BibRef


Jetley, S.[Saumya], Mehrotra, K.[Kapil], Vaze, A.[Atish], Belhe, S.[Swapnil],
Multi-script Identification from Printed Words,
ICIAR14(I: 359-368).
Springer DOI Link 1410
BibRef

Al Azawi, M.[Mayce], Ul Hasan, A.[Adnan], Liwicki, M.[Marcus], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Character-Level Alignment Using WFST and LSTM for Post-processing in Multi-script Recognition Systems - A Comparative Study,
ICIAR14(I: 379-386).
Springer DOI Link 1410
BibRef

Chen, G.[Guang], Yang, J.C.[Jian-Chao], Jin, H.L.[Hai-Lin], Brandt, J.[Jonathan], Shechtman, E.[Eli], Agarwala, A.[Aseem], Han, T.X.[Tony X.],
Large-Scale Visual Font Recognition,
CVPR14(3598-3605)
IEEE DOI Link 1409
character recognition BibRef

Brodic, D.[Darko], Milivojevic, Z.N.[Zoran N.], Maluckov, C.A.[Cedomir A.],
Script Characterization in the Old Slavic Documents,
ICISP14(230-238).
Springer DOI Link 1406
BibRef

Nakamoto, C.[Chihiro], Huang, R.[Rong], Koizumi, S.[Sota], Ishida, R.[Ryosuke], Feng, Y.[Yaokai], Uchida, S.[Seiichi],
Font Distribution Observation by Network-Based Analysis,
CBDAR13(83-97).
Springer DOI Link 1404
BibRef

Ferrer, M.A., Morales, A., Pal, U.,
LBP Based Line-Wise Script Identification,
ICDAR13(369-373)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hangarge, M., Santosh, K.C., Pardeshi, R.,
Directional Discrete Cosine Transform for Handwritten Script Identification,
ICDAR13(344-348)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
discrete cosine transforms BibRef

Rani, R., Dhir, R., Lehal, G.S.,
Script Identification of Pre-segmented Multi-font Characters and Digits,
ICDAR13(1150-1154)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
gradient methods BibRef

Siriteerakul, T.,
Mixed Thai-English Character Classification Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient Feature,
ICDAR13(847-851)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
character recognition BibRef

LiVolsi, R.[Robert], Zanibbi, R.[Richard], Bigelow, C.[Charles],
Collecting historical font metrics from Google Books,
ICPR12(351-355).
WWW Version. 1302
BibRef

Al-Khaffaf, H.S.M.[Hasan S. M.], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Cutter, M.P.[Michael P.], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
On the performance of Decapod's digital font reconstruction,
ICPR12(649-652).
WWW Version. 1302
BibRef

Roy, K., Das, S.K., Obaidullah, S.M.,
Script Identification from Handwritten Document,
NCVPRIPG11(66-69).
IEEE DOI Link 1205
BibRef

Roy, K.[Kaushik], Alaei, A.[Alireza], Pal, U.[Umapada],
Word-Wise Handwritten Persian and Roman Script Identification,
FHR10(628-633).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Rashid, S.F.[Sheikh Faisal], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
An Evaluation of HMM-Based Techniques for the Recognition of Screen Rendered Text,
ICDAR11(1260-1264).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Rashid, S.F.[Sheikh Faisal], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Discriminative learning for script recognition,
ICIP10(2145-2148).
IEEE DOI Link 1009
BibRef

Kataria, S.[Saurabh], Marchesotti, L.[Luca], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
Font retrieval on a large scale: An experimental study,
ICIP10(2177-2180).
IEEE DOI Link 1009
BibRef

Lidke, J.[Jakub], Thurau, C.[Christian], Bauckhage, C.[Christian],
The Snippet Statistics of Font Recognition,
ICPR10(1868-1871).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Pletschacher, S.[Stefan],
A Self-Adaptive Method for Extraction of Document-Specific Alphabets,
ICDAR09(656-660).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Eynard, L.[Loris], Emptoz, H.[Hubert],
Italic or Roman: Word Style Recognition without A Priori Knowledge for Old Printed Documents,
ICDAR09(823-827).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Roy, K.[Kaushik], Majumder, K.[Kinshuk],
Trilingual Script Separation of Handwritten Postal Document,
ICCVGIP08(693-700).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Neeba, N.V., Jawahar, C.V.,
Recognition of books by verification and retraining,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
Adapt to the font in the book. BibRef

Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Script identification of camera-based images,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Tay, K.S.[Kah Seng], Koile, K.[Kimberle],
Improving digital ink interpretation through expected type prediction and dynamic dispatch,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Moussa, S.B.[S. Ben], Zahour, A., Benabdelhafid, A., Alimi, A.M.,
Fractal-based system for Arabic/Latin, printed/handwritten script identification,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Koyama, J., Hirose, A., Kato, M.,
Local-spectrum-based distinction between handwritten and machine-printed characters,
ICIP08(1021-1024).
IEEE DOI Link 0810
BibRef

Huang, G.B., Learned-Miller, E.G., McCallum, A.,
Cryptogram Decoding for OCR Using Numerization Strings,
ICDAR07(208-212).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
For multiple (arbitrary) fonts. BibRef

Dhandra, B.V., Nagabhushan, P., Hangarge, M.[Mallikarjun], Hegadi, R.[Ravindra], Malemath, V.S.,
Script Identification Based on Morphological Reconstruction in Document Images,
ICPR06(II: 950-953).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Sun, H.M.[Hung-Ming],
Multi-Linguistic Optical Font Recognition Using Stroke Templates,
ICPR06(II: 889-892).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Iwamura, M.[Masakazu], Tsuji, T.[Tomohiko], Horimatsu, A.[Akira], Kise, K.[Koichi],
Real-Time Camera-Based Recognition of Characters and Pictograms,
ICDAR09(76-80).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Hattori, R.[Ryoji], Iwamura, M.[Masakazu], Omachi, S.[Shinichiro], Kise, K.[Koichi],
Conspicuous Character Patterns,
ICDAR09(16-20).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Omachi, S.[Shinichiro], Iwamura, M.[Masakazu], Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Kise, K.[Koichi],
Affine Invariant Information Embedment for Accurate Camera-Based Character Recognition,
ICPR06(II: 1098-1101).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Uchida, S.[Seiichi], Iwamura, M.[Masakazu], Omachi, S.[Shinichiro], Kise, K.[Koichi],
OCR Fonts Revisited for Camera-Based Character Recognition,
ICPR06(II: 1134-1137).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Peng, L.R.[Liang-Rui], Liu, C.S.[Chang-Song], Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing], Wang, H.[Hua],
Multilingual document recognition research and its application in China,
DIAL06(126-132).
IEEE DOI Link 0604
BibRef

Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing], Wen, D.[Di], Peng, L.R.[Liang-Rui], Liu, C.S.[Chang-Song],
Document digitization technology and its application for digital library in China,
DIAL04(46-53).
IEEE DOI Link 0404
BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Script and Language Identification in Noisy and Degraded Document Images,
PAMI(30), No. 1, January 2008, pp. 14-24.
IEEE DOI Link 0711
BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim], Huang, W.H.[Wei-Hua],
Language Identification in Degraded and Distorted Document Images,
DAS06(232-242).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Zhou, L.J.[Li-Jun], Lu, Y.[Yue], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Bangla/English Script Identification Based on Analysis of Connected Component Profiles,
DAS06(243-254).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Pati, P.B.[Peeta Basa], Ramakrishnan, A.G.,
HVS Inspired System for Script Identification in Indian Multi-script Documents,
DAS06(380-389).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Liu, Y.H.[Ying-Ho], Lin, C.C.[Chin-Chin], Chang, F.[Fu],
Language identification of character images using machine learning techniques,
ICDAR05(II: 630-634).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Chen, L.[Li], Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing],
A universal method for single character type recognition,
ICPR04(I: 413-416).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Hase, H., Shinokawa, T., Tokai, S., Suen, C.Y.,
A robust method of recognizing multi-font rotated characters,
ICPR04(II: 363-366).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Zhang, L.[Li], Lu, Y.[Yue], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Italic font recognition using stroke pattern analysis on wavelet decomposed word images,
ICPR04(IV: 835-838).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Seropian, A., Grimaldi, M., Vincent, N.,
Differentiation of alphabets in handwritten texts,
ICPR04(II: 622-625).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Kavallieratou, E., Stamatatos, S.,
Discrimination of machine-printed from handwritten text using simple structural characteristics,
ICPR04(I: 437-440).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Lee, C.W.[Chang Woo], Kang, H.[Hyun], Jung, K.C.[Kee-Chul], Kim, H.J.[Hang Joon],
Font Classification Using NMF,
CAIP03(470-477).
WWW Version. 0311
BibRef

Ablavsky, V., Stevens, M.R.,
Automatic feature selection with applications to script identification of degraded documents,
ICDAR03(750-754).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Dhanya, D., Ramakrishnan, A.G.,
Script Identification in Printed Bilingual Documents,
DAS02(13 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303
BibRef

Dhanya, D., Ramakrishnan, A.G.,
Optimal Feature Extraction for Bilingual OCR,
DAS02(25 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303
BibRef

Pal, U., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Automatic identification of English, Chinese, Arabic, Devnagari and Bangla script line,
ICDAR01(790-794).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Tho, Y.[Yu], Tang, Y.Y.,
Discrimination of Oriental and Euramerican scripts using fractal feature,
ICDAR01(1115-1119).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Peake, G.S., Tan, T.N.,
Script and Language Identification from Document Images,
BMVC97(xx-yy).
HTML Version. 0209
BibRef

Shi, H., Pavlidis, T.,
Font Recognition and Contextual Processing for More Accurate Text Recognition,
ICDAR97(39-44).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

de Muelenaere, P., Dauw, M., Legat, J.D.,
Omnifont recognition of text using topological recognition techniques,
ICPR92(II:410-413).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Hidden Markov Models, HMM .


Last update:Nov 18, 2014 at 16:40:01