23.4.3.1 Binarization: Threshold selection for documents, Character Enhancement

Chapter Contents (Back)
Binarization. Segmentation. See also Segmentation by Thresholding, Quantization, or Relaxation.

Wahl, F.M., Wong, K.Y., and Casey, R.G.,
Block Segmentation and Text Extraction in Mixed Text/Image Documents,
CGIP(20), No. 4, December 1982, pp. 375-390.
WWW Version. Document Analysis. Segmentation, Binarization. BibRef 8212

Casey, R.G., and Naagy, G.,
Recursive Segmentation and Classification of Composite Patterns,
ICPR82(1023-xx). Separate characters for OCR BibRef 8209

Walsh, B.F.[Brian F.], Halpert, D.E.[David E.],
Low resolution raster images,
US_Patent4,437,122, Mar 13, 1984
WWW Version. BibRef 8403

Nadler, M.[Morton],
Process and device for the binarization of a pattern,
US_Patent4,509,195, Apr 2, 1985
WWW Version. BibRef 8504

Tanioka, H.[Hiroshi],
Image processing apparatus,
US_Patent4,723,173, Feb 2, 1988
WWW Version. Binarization BibRef 8802

Yoneda, H.[Hitoshi], Machida, H.[Hironobu], Kanno, H.[Hiroki], Izawa, K.[Koji],
Image processing device,
US_Patent5,001,767, Mar 19, 1991
WWW Version. Binarization BibRef 9103

Klees, K.J.[Kevin J.],
Edge enhancement error diffusion thresholding for document images,
US_Patent5,034,990, July 23, 1991.
WWW Version. BibRef 9107
And:
Adaptive error diffusion thresholding for document images,
US_Patent5,060,284, Oct 22, 1991
WWW Version. BibRef

Marandici, M.P.[Mircea P.], Quinn, M.J.[Matthew J.],
Automatic threshold generation technique,
US_Patent5,337,373, Aug 9, 1994
WWW Version. BibRef 9408

Chou, S.L.[Sheng-Li], Yu, S.S.[Shiaw-Shian], Lai, Y.C.[Yuan-Cheng],
Run-based method for smoothing handwritten Chinese characters,
US_Patent5,410,614, Apr 25, 1995
WWW Version. BibRef 9504

Liu, Y., Srihari, S.N.,
Document Image Binarization Based on Texture Features,
PAMI(19), No. 5, May 1997, pp. 540-544.
IEEE DOI Link 9705
Candidate thresholds using Otsu ( See also Threshold Selection Method from Grey-Level Histograms, A. ), Textures using runlength histogram texture, Select threshold to preserve desirable document texture features. BibRef

Palumbo, P.W., Swaminathan, P., Srihari, S.N.,
Document Image Binarization: Evaluation of Algorithms,
SPIE(697), 1986, pp. 278-285. BibRef 8600

Liu, Y.,
Document Image Binarization Based on Texture Analysis,
Ph.D.Thesis, SUNY/Buffalo, 1995. BibRef 9500

Durham, T.J.[Thomas J.],
Method and apparatus for image capture of information on documents,
US_Patent4,821,332, Apr 11, 1989
WWW Version. BibRef 8904

Taxt, T., Flynn, P.J., and Jain, A.K.,
Segmentation of Document Images,
PAMI(11), No. 12, December 1989, pp. 1322-1329.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 8912
Earlier: SMC-C89(1062-1067). OCR. Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Segmentation. Document Analysis. Relaxation based technique worked best on two cases and the non-contextual technique on the other two. The system essentially classifies pixels as text or background, no recognition, etc. BibRef

Trier, O.D.[Oivind Due], Jain, A.K.[Anil K.],
Goal-Directed Evaluation of Binarization Methods,
PAMI(17), No. 12, December 1995, pp. 1191-1201.
IEEE DOI Link Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Segmentation. Evaluate the algorithm by how well the next stage performs, rather than some arbitrary measure. The same conclusion reached in See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 9512

Trier, O.D., Taxt, T.,
Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images,
PAMI(17), No. 3, March 1995, pp. 312-315.
IEEE DOI Link Evaluation, Segmentation. Segmentation, Binarization. Evaluation, Thresholding. BibRef 9503
And: Correction: PAMI(17), No. 6, June 1995, pp. 640-640.
IEEE Top Reference. BibRef
And:
Improvement of Integrated Function Algorithm for Binarization of Document Images,
PRL(16), No. 3, March 1995, pp. 277-283. BibRef
Earlier:
Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Utility Map Images,
ICIP94(II: 1046-1050).
IEEE DOI Link Modified locally adaptive methods were the best 3 when modified by See also New Method for Image Segmentation, A. which was fourth by itself. Global methods did far worse. The method in the book ( See also Introduction to Digital Image Processing, An. ) (when modified) did the best. See also Fast Adaptive Method for Binarization of Document Images, A. (modified) was second. See also Dynamic Thresholding of Grey-Level Images. (modified) was third. BibRef

Tan, H.L.[Hin-Leong],
Row-by-row segmentation and thresholding for optical character recognition,
US_Patent5,081,690, Jan 14, 1992
WWW Version. BibRef 9201

Oh, I.S.,
Document Image Binarization Preserving Stroke Connectivity,
PRL(16), No. 7, July 1995, pp. 743-748. BibRef 9507

O'Gorman, L.,
Binarization and Multithresholding of Document Images Using Connectivity,
GMIP(56), No. 6, November 1994, pp. 494-506. BibRef 9411
And:
Experimental comparisons of binarization and multi-thresholding methods on document images,
ICPR94(B:395-398).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.], Zhao, A.[Aiguo],
Extraction of Binary Character/Graphics Images from Grayscale Document Images,
GMIP(55), No. 3, May 1993, pp. 203-??. BibRef 9305
Earlier:
Binary character/graphics image extraction: a new technique and six evaluation aspects,
ICPR92(III:113-116).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Mo, S., Mathews, V.J.,
Adaptive, Quadratic Preprocessing of Document Images for Binarization,
IP(7), No. 7, July 1998, pp. 992-999.
IEEE DOI Link 9807
BibRef

Jang, J.H.[Jeong-Hun], Hong, K.S.[Ki-Sang],
Binarization of noisy gray-scale character images by thin line modeling,
PR(32), No. 5, May 1999, pp. 743-752.
WWW Version. BibRef 9905

Solihin, Y., Leedham, C.G.,
Integral Ratio: A New Class of Global Thresholding Techniques for Handwriting Images,
PAMI(21), No. 8, August 1999, pp. 761-768.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9908
Earlier:
Mathematical properties of the native integral ratio handwriting and text extraction technique,
ICDAR97(1102-1106).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Kaji, Y.[Yukio], Nakajima, T.[Toshiki],
Binarization system for an image scanner,
US_Patent5,915,049, Jun 22, 1999
WWW Version. BibRef 9906

Sauvola, J., Pietikäinen, M.,
Adaptive document image binarization,
PR(33), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 225-236.
WWW Version. 0001
BibRef

Sauvola, J., Seppanen, T., Haapakoski, S., Pietikainen, M.,
Adaptive document binarization,
ICDAR97(147-152).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Yang, Y.B.[Yi-Bing], Yan, H.[Hong],
An adaptive logical method for binarization of degraded document images,
PR(33), No. 5, May 2000, pp. 787-807.
WWW Version. 0003
BibRef

Zhao, M.S.[Man-Suo], Yang, Y.B.[Yi-Bing], Yan, H.[Hong],
An adaptive thresholding method for binarization of blueprint images,
PRL(21), No. 10, October 2000, pp. 927-943. 0008
BibRef

Savakis, A.E.[Andreas E.],
Document image thresholding using foreground and background clustering,
US_Patent6,044,179, Mar 28, 2000
WWW Version. BibRef 0003
And:
Adaptive document image thresholding using foreground and background clustering,
ICIP98(III: 785-789).
IEEE DOI Link 9810
BibRef

Qin, S.F.[Sheng-Feng], Wright, D.K.[David K.], Jordanov, I.N.[Ivan N.],
On-line segmentation of freehand sketches by knowledge-based nonlinear thresholding operations,
PR(34), No. 10, October 2001, pp. 1885-1893.
WWW Version. 0108
BibRef

Kim, I.K.[In-Kwon], Jung, D.W.[Dong-Wook], Park, R.H.[Rae-Hong],
Document image binarization based on topographic analysis using a water flow model,
PR(35), No. 1, January 2002, pp. 265-277.
WWW Version. 0111
BibRef

Don, H.S.[Hon-Son],
A noise attribute thresholding method for document image binarization,
IJDAR(4), No. 2 2001, pp. 131-138.
HTML Version. 0201
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Binarization of color document images via luminance and saturation color features,
IP(11), No. 4, April 2002, pp. 434-451.
IEEE DOI Link 0205
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Efficiently extracting and classifying objects for analyzing color documents,
MVA(22), No. 1, January 2011, pp. 1-19.
WWW Version. 1101
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming], Yeh, Z.M.[Zong-Mu], Wang, Y.F.[Yuan-Fang],
Decision tree-based contrast enhancement for various color images,
MVA(22), No. 1, January 2011, pp. 21-37.
WWW Version. 1101
BibRef

Tsai, C.M.[Chun-Ming],
Intelligent region-based thresholding for color document images with highlighted regions,
PR(45), No. 4, April 2012, pp. 1341-1362.
Elsevier DOI Link 1112
Region-based thresholding; Color document image; Highlighted region background; Restricted background projection BibRef

Zlotnick, A.[Aviad],
Method for image binarization,
US_Patent6,351,566, Feb 26, 2002
WWW Version. BibRef 0202

Lee, Y.C.[Yong-Chun], Rudak, P.[Peter],
Region-based image binarization system,
US_Patent6,393,150, May 21, 2002
WWW Version. BibRef 0205

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Natural Skeletonization: New Approach For The Skeletonization Of Handwritten Characters,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 267-279. 0504
BibRef

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Iterative model-based binarization algorithm for cheque images,
IJDAR(5), No. 1, 2002, pp. 28-38.
HTML Version. 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
Binarization of document images using image dependent model,
ICDAR01(49-53).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Dawoud, A.[Amer], Kamel, M.S.[Mohamed S.],
Iterative Multimodel Subimage Binarization for Handwritten Character Segmentation,
IP(13), No. 9, September 2004, pp. 1223-1230.
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef
Earlier:
Iterative sub-image binarization for document images,
ICIP03(I: 553-556).
IEEE Abstract. 0312
BibRef

Tabbone, S.A.[Salvatore A.], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
Multi-scale binarization of images,
PRL(24), No. 1-3, January 2003, pp. 403-411.
Elsevier DOI Link 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
An original multi-scale algorithm to binarize images,
ICPR02(IV: 322-325).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

Wang, B.[Bin], Li, X.F.[Xiang-Feng], Liu, F.[Feng], Hu, F.Q.[Fu-Qiao],
Color text image binarization based on binary texture analysis,
PRL(26), No. 10, 15 July 2005, pp. 1568-1576.
WWW Version. 0506
BibRef
And: PRL(26), No. 11, August 2005, pp. 1650-1657.
WWW Version. 0506
BibRef

Oh, H.H.[Hyun-Hwa], Lim, K.T.[Kil-Taek], Chien, S.I.[Sung-Il],
An improved binarization algorithm based on a water flow model for document image with inhomogeneous backgrounds,
PR(38), No. 12, December 2005, pp. 2612-2625.
WWW Version. 0510
BibRef

Curry, D.J.[Donald J.], Kletter, D.[Doron], Nafarieh, A.[Asghar],
Dynamic threshold system for multiple raster content (MRC) representation of documents,
US_Patent6,859,204, Feb 22, 2005
WWW Version. BibRef 0502

Gatos, B.[Basilios], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.], Perantonis, S.J.[Stavros J.],
Adaptive degraded document image binarization,
PR(39), No. 3, March 2006, pp. 317-327.
WWW Version. 0601
BibRef
Earlier:
An Adaptive Binarization Technique for Low Quality Historical Documents,
DAS04(102-113).
WWW Version. 0505
BibRef

Ntirogiannis, K., Gatos, B.[Basilios], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
A combined approach for the binarization of handwritten document images,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 3-15.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
Document image binarization BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilis], Pratikakis, I.E., Perantonis, S.J.,
Improved document image binarization by using a combination of multiple binarization techniques and adapted edge information,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Gupta, M.R.[Maya R.], Jacobson, N.P.[Nathaniel P.], Garcia, E.K.[Eric K.],
OCR binarization and image pre-processing for searching historical documents,
PR(40), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 389-397.
WWW Version. 0611
OCR; Binarization; Multiresolutional; Halftoning BibRef

Downton, A.C.[Andy C.], He, J.Y.[Jing-Yu], Lucas, S.[Simon],
User-configurable OCR enhancement for online natural history archives,
IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 263-279.
Springer DOI Link 0704
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, Only:
Evaluation of a user-assisted archive construction system for online natural history archives,
ICDAR05(I: 442-446).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

He, J., Do, Q.D.M., Downton, A.C., Kim, J.H.,
A comparison of binarization methods for historical archive documents,
ICDAR05(I: 538-542).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Badekas, E.[Efthimios], Nikolaou, N.[Nikos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Text binarization in color documents,
IJIST(16), No. 6, 2006, pp. 262-274.
DOI Link 0706
BibRef

Badekas, E.[Efthimios], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Document binarisation using Kohonen SOM,
IET-IPR(1), No. 1, March 2007, pp. 67-84.
DOI Link 0905
BibRef

Nikolaou, N.[Nikos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
Color reduction for complex document images,
IJIST(19), No. 1, March 2009, pp. 14-26.
DOI Link 0902
BibRef
Earlier:
Color Segmentation of Complex Document Images,
VISAPP06(251-263).
Springer DOI Link 0711
BibRef

Chen, Q.A.[Qi-Ang], Sun, Q.S.[Quan-Sen], Heng, P.A.[Pheng Ann], Xia, D.S.[De-Shen],
A double-threshold image binarization method based on edge detector,
PR(41), No. 4, April 2008, pp. 1254-1267.
WWW Version. 0801
Binarization; Double-threshold; Edge connection; Edge detector; Seed filling See also Parametric active contours for object tracking based on matching degree image of object contour points. BibRef

Chen, Q.A.[Qi-Ang], Xue, B.[Benben], Sun, Q.S.[Quan-Sen], Xia, D.S.[De-Shen],
Interactive image segmentation based on object contour feature image,
ICIP10(3605-3608).
IEEE DOI Link 1009
BibRef

Dong, L.[Liju], Yu, G.[Ge], Ogunbona, P.[Philip], Li, W.Q.[Wan-Qing],
An efficient iterative algorithm for image thresholding,
PRL(29), No. 9, 1 July 2008, pp. 1311-1316.
WWW Version. 0711
Thresholding; Binarisation; Segmentation BibRef

Huang, S.T.[Song-Tao], Ahmadi, M.[Majid], Sid-Ahmed, M.A.,
A hidden Markov model-based character extraction method,
PR(41), No. 9, September 2008, pp. 2890-2900.
WWW Version. 0806
Binarization; Thresholding; HMM; OCR; Stroke BibRef

Hu, X.F.[Xiao-Feng], Ye, Q.T.[Qing-Tai],
Adaptive Thresholding for Degraded Call Number Images,
IEICE(E88-D), No. 1, January 2005, pp. 162-163.
DOI Link 0501
BibRef

Chi, Z.[Zheru], Wang, Q.[Qing],
Document Image Binarization With Feedback For Improving Character Segmentation,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 281-309. 0504
BibRef

Quweider, M.K., Scargle, J.D., Jackson, B.,
Grey level reduction for segmentation, threshholding and binarisation of images based on optimal partitioning on an interval,
IET-IPR(1), No. 2, June 2007, pp. 103-111.
DOI Link 0905
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Ramirez-Ramirez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Transition pixel: A concept for binarization based on edge detection and gray-intensity histograms,
PR(43), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 1233-1243.
Elsevier DOI Link 1002
Transition function; Thresholding; Binarization; Edge detection; Integral image; Image pre-processing BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Rojas, R.[Raul],
Unsupervised Evaluation Methods Based on Local Gray-Intensity Variances for Binarization of Historical Documents,
ICPR10(2029-2032).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Transition thresholds and transition operators for binarization and edge detection,
PR(43), No. 10, October 2010, pp. 3243-3254.
Elsevier DOI Link 1007
Transition function; Thresholding; Binarization; Edge detection; Image pre-processing BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Rojas, R.[Raul],
Transition Thresholds for Binarization of Historical Documents,
ICPR10(2362-2365).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Duenez-Guzman, E.A.[Edgar A.], Rojas, R.[Raul], Cuevas, E.[Erik],
Unsupervised measures for parameter selection of binarization algorithms,
PR(44), No. 3, March 2011, pp. 491-502.
Elsevier DOI Link 1011
Binarization; Image pre-processing; Unsupervised evaluation method BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A.[Marte A.], Tapia, E.[Ernesto], Block, M., Rojas, R.[Raul],
Quantile Linear Algorithm for Robust Binarization of Digitalized Letters,
ICDAR07(1158-1162).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Chou, C.H.[Chien-Hsing], Lin, W.H.[Wen-Hsiung], Chang, F.[Fu],
A binarization method with learning-built rules for document images produced by cameras,
PR(43), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 1518-1530.
Elsevier DOI Link 1002
Document image binarization; Global threshold; Image processing; Local threshold; Multi-label problem; Non-uniform brightness; Support vector machine BibRef

Lazaro, J.[Jesus], Martin, J.L.[Jose Luis], Arias, J.[Jagoba], Astarloa, A.[Armando], Cuadrado, C.[Carlos],
Neuro semantic thresholding using OCR software for high precision OCR applications,
IVC(28), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 571-578.
Elsevier DOI Link 1002
Thresholding; Binarization; GRNN; Semantic description; OCR BibRef

Pai, Y.T.[Yu-Ting], Chang, Y.F.[Yi-Fan], Ruan, S.J.[Shanq-Jang],
Adaptive thresholding algorithm: Efficient computation technique based on intelligent block detection for degraded document images,
PR(43), No. 9, September 2010, pp. 3177-3187.
Elsevier DOI Link 1006
Document image analysis; Document image binarization; Adaptive thresholding; High speed; Low computational cost BibRef

Naegel, B.[Benoit], Wendling, L.[Laurent],
A document binarization method based on connected operators,
PRL(31), No. 11, 1 August 2010, pp. 1251-1259.
Elsevier DOI Link 1008
BibRef
Earlier:
Document Binarization Based on Connected Operators,
ICDAR09(316-320).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Document binarization; Connected operators; Component-tree; Mathematical morphology BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Su, B.[Bolan], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Document image binarization using background estimation and stroke edges,
IJDAR(13), No. 4, December 2010, pp. 303-314.
WWW Version. 1101
BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilis], Ntirogiannis, K.[Konstantinos], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
DIBCO 2009: document image binarization contest,
IJDAR(14), No. 1, March 2011, pp. 35-44.
WWW Version. 1103
Evaluation, Binarization. BibRef
Earlier:
ICDAR 2009 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2009),
ICDAR09(1375-1382).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Pratikakis, I.[Ioannis], Gatos, B.[Basilis], Ntirogiannis, K.[Konstantinos],
ICDAR 2013 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2013),
ICDAR13(1471-1476)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
ICFHR 2012 Competition on Handwritten Document Image Binarization (H-DIBCO 2012),
FHR12(817-822).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
Evaluation, Binarization. BibRef
And:
ICDAR 2011 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO 2011),
ICDAR11(1506-1510).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef
And:
H-DIBCO 2010: Handwritten Document Image Binarization Competition,
FHR10(727-732).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Bataineh, B.[Bilal], Abdullah, S.N.H.S.[Siti Norul Huda Sheikh], Omar, K.[Khairuddin],
An adaptive local binarization method for document images based on a novel thresholding method and dynamic windows,
PRL(32), No. 14, 15 October 2011, pp. 1805-1813.
Elsevier DOI Link 1110
Document image binarization; Local binarization; OCR; Text; Thresholding methods BibRef

Shi, J.[Jichuan], Ray, N.[Nilanjan], Zhang, H.[Hong],
Shape based local thresholding for binarization of document images,
PRL(33), No. 1, 1 January 2012, pp. 24-32.
Elsevier DOI Link 1112
Document binarization; Image threshold; Shape analysis See also Solidity based local threshold for oil sand image segmentation. BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
Binarization of degraded document image based on feature space partitioning and classification,
IJDAR(15), No. 1, March 2012, pp. 57-69.
WWW Version. 1203
BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
Partitioning of feature space by iterative classification for degraded document image binarisation,
IET-IPR(6), No. 6, 2012, pp. 804-812.
DOI Link 1210
BibRef

Valizadeh, M.[Morteza], Kabir, E.[Ehsanollah],
An adaptive water flow model for binarization of degraded document images,
IJDAR(16), No. 2, June 2013, pp. 165-176.
WWW Version. 1306
BibRef

Chiu, Y.H.[Yung-Hsiang], Chung, K.L.[Kuo-Liang], Yang, W.N.[Wei-Ning], Huang, Y.H.[Yong-Huai], Liao, C.H.[Chi-Huang],
Parameter-free based two-stage method for binarizing degraded document images,
PR(45), No. 12, December 2012, pp. 4250-4262.
Elsevier DOI Link 1208
Adaptive binarization method; Degraded document image; Document image processing; Performance evaluation BibRef

Zhu, Z.J.[Zhong-Jie], Wang, Y.[Yuer], Jiang, G.Y.[Gang-Yi],
On Perceptually Consistent Image Binarization,
SPLetters(20), No. 1, January 2013, pp. 3-6.
IEEE DOI Link 1212
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Wen, J.T.[Jiang-Tao], Li, S.[Shumo], Sun, J.[Jiedi],
A new binarization method for non-uniform illuminated document images,
PR(46), No. 6, June 2013, pp. 1670-1690.
Elsevier DOI Link 1302
Document image binarization; Non-uniform brightness; Curvelet transform; Adaptive multi-scale processing BibRef

Guo, G.C.[Gen-Cheng], Yu, X.W.[Xin-Wei], Jing, Y.[Yindi], Mandal, M.,
Optimal Design of Noise-Enhanced Binary Threshold Detector Under AUC Measure,
SPLetters(20), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 161-164.
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Dawoud, A., Netchaev, A.,
Graph cut-based binarisation of noisy check images,
IET-IPR(6), No. 9, 2012, pp. 1256-1261.
DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Shaikh, S.H.[Soharab Hossain], Maiti, A.K.[Asis Kumar], Chaki, N.[Nabendu],
A new image binarization method using iterative partitioning,
MVA(24), No. 2, February 2013, pp. 337-350.
WWW Version. 1302
BibRef

Su, B.[Bolan], Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Robust Document Image Binarization Technique for Degraded Document Images,
IP(22), No. 4, April 2013, pp. 1408-1417.
IEEE DOI Link 1303
BibRef
Earlier:
Combination of Document Image Binarization Techniques,
ICDAR11(22-26).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Binarization of Badly Illuminated Document Images through Shading Estimation and Compensation,
ICDAR07(312-316).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Beauchemin, M.,
Image thresholding based on semivariance,
PRL(34), No. 5, 1 April 2013, pp. 456-462.
Elsevier DOI Link 1303
Image thresholding; Binarization; Multiscale; Variogram; Semivariance BibRef

Lelore, T.[Thibault], Bouchara, F.[Frédéric],
FAIR: A Fast Algorithm for Document Image Restoration,
PAMI(35), No. 8, 2013, pp. 2039-2048.
IEEE DOI Link 1307
BibRef
Earlier:
Document Image Binarisation Using Markov Field Model,
ICDAR09(551-555).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Image edge detection; Image enhancement; image edge detection BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Märgner, V.[Volker], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
An optimization for binarization methods by removing binary artifacts,
PRL(34), No. 11, 1 August 2013, pp. 1299-1306.
Elsevier DOI Link 1306
Historical documents; Threshold; Denoising; Binarization; Minimum error rate; Bayes theory BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Ramírez-Ramírez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Märgner, V.[Volker], Ben Messaoud, I.[Ines], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
An analysis of the transition proportion for binarization in handwritten historical documents,
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Elsevier DOI Link 1405
Threshold BibRef

Ramírez-Ortegón, M.A.[Marte A.], Ramírez-Ramírez, L.L.[Lilia L.], Ben Messaoud, I.[Ines], Märgner, V.[Volker], Cuevas, E.[Erik], Rojas, R.[Raúl],
A model for the gray-intensity distribution of historical handwritten documents and its application for binarization,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 139-160.
Springer DOI Link 1407
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Howe, N.R.[Nicholas R.],
Document binarization with automatic parameter tuning,
IJDAR(16), No. 3, September 2013, pp. 247-258.
Springer DOI Link 1309
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And: Erratum: IJDAR(16), No. 3, September 2013, pp. 259.
Springer DOI Link 1309
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Abbasi, N.[Naeem], Athow, J.[Jacques], Amer, A.[Aishy],
Modified stable Euler-number algorithm implementation for real-time image binarization,
RealTimeIP(9), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 31-45.
WWW Version. 1403
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Earlier:
Real-time FPGA architecture of modified Stable Euler-Number algorithm for image binarization,
ICIP09(3253-3256).
IEEE DOI Link 0911
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Farias, R.C., Moisan, E., Brossier, J.M.,
Optimal Asymmetric Binary Quantization for Estimation Under Symmetrically Distributed Noise,
SPLetters(21), No. 5, May 2014, pp. 523-526.
IEEE DOI Link 1404
parameter estimation BibRef

Namane, A., Guessoum, A., Soubari, E.H., Meyrueis, P.,
CSM neural network for degraded printed character optical recognition,
JVCIR(25), No. 5, 2014, pp. 1171-1186.
Elsevier DOI Link 1406
Component BibRef

Rabeux, V., Journet, N., Vialard, A., Domenger, J.P.,
Quality evaluation of degraded document images for binarization result prediction,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 125-137.
Springer DOI Link 1407
BibRef
Earlier:
Quality Evaluation of Ancient Digitized Documents for Binarization Prediction,
ICDAR13(113-117)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hoang, T.V.[Thai V.], Smith, E.H.B.[Elisa H. Barney], Tabbone, S.A.[Salvatore A.],
Sparsity-based edge noise removal from bilevel graphical document images,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 161-179.
Springer DOI Link 1407
BibRef
Earlier:
Edge noise removal in bilevel graphical document images using sparse representation,
ICIP11(3549-3552).
IEEE DOI Link 1201
BibRef

Nafchi, H.Z.[Hossein Ziaei], Moghaddam, R.F.[Reza Farrahi], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
Phase-Based Binarization of Ancient Document Images: Model and Applications,
IP(23), No. 7, July 2014, pp. 2916-2930.
IEEE DOI Link 1407
BibRef
Earlier:
Application of Phase-Based Features and Denoising in Postprocessing and Binarization of Historical Document Images,
ICDAR13(220-224)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Historical Document Binarization Based on Phase Information of Images,
eHeritage12(II:1-12).
Springer DOI Link 1304
Degradation. document image processing BibRef

Moghaddam, R.F., Moghaddam, F.F., Cheriet, M.,
Unsupervised Ensemble of Experts (EoE) Framework for Automatic Binarization of Document Images,
ICDAR13(703-707)
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document image processing BibRef

Nafchi, H.Z., Ayatollahi, S.M., Moghaddam, R.F., Cheriet, M.,
An Efficient Ground Truthing Tool for Binarization of Historical Manuscripts,
ICDAR13(807-811)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Hedjam, R., Cheriet, M.,
Ground-Truth Estimation in Multispectral Representation Space: Application to Degraded Document Image Binarization,
ICDAR13(190-194)
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document image processing BibRef

Lazzara, G.[Guillaume], Géraud, T.[Thierry],
Efficient multiscale Sauvola's binarization,
IJDAR(17), No. 2, June 2014, pp. 105-123.
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Mandal, S.[Sayan], Biswas, S.[Samit], Das, A.K.[Amit Kumar], Chanda, B.[Bhabatosh],
Binarisation of Colour Map Images through Extraction of Regions,
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Ghosh, S., Bag, S.,
An improvement on thinning to handle characters with noisy contour,
NCVPRIPG13(1-4)
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document image processing BibRef

Kherada, S., Namboodiri, A.M.,
An ICA Based Approach for Complex Color Scene Text Binarization,
ACPR13(125-129)
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document image processing BibRef

Afzal, M.Z.[Muhammad Zeshan], Krämer, M.[Martin], Bukhari, S.S.[Syed Saqib], Yousefi, M.R.[Mohammad Reza], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
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CBDAR13(139-149).
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MVA09(98-).
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Document image binarization via one-pass local classification,
ICIP13(2299-2303)
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binarization;local classification;one-pass BibRef

Ren, J.F.[Jian-Feng], Jiang, X.D.[Xu-Dong], Yuan, J.S.[Jun-Song],
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ICIP13(2494-2498)
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Binarized Pixel-difference Pattern BibRef

Hebert, D., Nicolas, S., Paquet, T.,
Discrete CRF Based Combination Framework for Document Image Binarization,
ICDAR13(1165-1169)
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document image processing BibRef

Chattopadhyay, T., Reddy, V.R., Garain, U.,
Automatic Selection of Binarization Method for Robust OCR,
ICDAR13(1170-1174)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Shirai, K., Endo, Y., Kitadai, A., Inoue, S., Kurushima, N., Baba, H., Watanabe, A., Nakagawa, M.,
Character Shape Restoration of Binarized Historical Documents by Smoothing via Geodesic Morphology,
ICDAR13(1285-1289)
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differential geometry BibRef

Seki, M., Asano, E., Yasue, T., Nagayoshi, H., Shinjo, H., Nagasaki, T.,
Color Drop-Out Binarization Method for Document Images with Color Shift,
ICDAR13(123-127)
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cameras BibRef

Milyaev, S., Barinova, O., Novikova, T., Kohli, P., Lempitsky, V.,
Image Binarization for End-to-End Text Understanding in Natural Images,
ICDAR13(128-132)
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image recognition BibRef

Ramirez-Ortegon, M.A., Margner, V., Rojas, R., Cuevas, E.,
An Objective Method to Evaluate Stroke-Width Measures for Binarized Documents,
ICDAR13(175-179)
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document handling BibRef

Roe, E., Mello, C.A.B.,
Binarization of Color Historical Document Images Using Local Image Equalization and XDoG,
ICDAR13(205-209)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Gaussian processes BibRef

Parker, J., Frieder, O., Frieder, G.,
Automatic Enhancement and Binarization of Degraded Document Images,
ICDAR13(210-214)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Peng, X.J.[Xu-Jun], Cao, H.G.[Huai-Gu], Subramanian, K., Prasad, R., Natarajan, P.,
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ICDAR13(1034-1038)
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document image processing BibRef

Roy, S.[Sangheeta], Shivakumara, P.[Palaiahnakote], Roy, P.P.[Partha Pratim], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
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Su, B.[Bolan], Lu, S.[Shijian], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
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Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng], Wang, K.[Kai], Li, J.[Jiaofeng], Jiao, J.[Jiao], Xu, J.[Jing],
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Yang, J.F.[Ju-Feng], Wang, K.[Kai], Jiao, J.[Jiao], Xu, J.[Jing],
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Sari, T.[Toufik], Kefali, A.[Abderhmane], Bahi, H.[Halima],
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Shaus, A.[Arie], Turkel, E.[Eli], Piasetzky, E.[Eli],
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Nafchi, H.Z.[Hossein Ziaei], Kanan, H.R.[Hamidreza Rashidy],
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Bag, S.[Soumen], Bhowmick, P.[Partha], Behera, P.[Priyaranjan], Harit, G.[Gaurav],
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Howe, N.R.[Nicholas R.],
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Stommel, M., Frieder, G.,
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Rao, A.V.S.[A. Venkata Srinivasa], Sreenivasu, T.[Tinnathi], Rao, N.V.[Nenkkanti Venkata], Sastry, A.S.C.S., Reddy, L.P.[L. Pratap], Prabhu, T.S.K.[T.S. Krishna],
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Rao, A.V.S.[A. Venkata Srinivasa], Sunil, G.[Golla], Rao, N.V.[Nenkkanti Venkata], Prabhu, T.S.K.[T.S. Krishna], Reddy, L.P.[L. Pratap], Sastry, A.S.C.S.,
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Tong, L.J.[Li-Jing], Chen, K.[Kan], Zhang, Y.[Yan], Fu, X.L.[Xiao-Ling], Duan, J.Y.[Jian-Yong],
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Cheng, G.[Gang], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Xiao, B.H.[Bai-Hua], Jiang, A.[Aiweng],
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Fang, X.[Xu], Liu, C.P.[Chun-Ping], Gong, S.R.[Sheng-Rong], Ji, Y.[Yi],
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ACPR13(430-434)
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computational complexity BibRef

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Kuk, J.G.[Jung Gap], Cho, N.I.[Nam Ik],
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Tanaka, H.[Hiroshi],
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Cecotti, H.[Hubert], Belad, A.[Abdel],
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Abirami, S., Manjula, D.,
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Xi, Y.[Yan], Chen, Y.B.[You-Bin], Liao, Q.M.[Qing-Min], Leung, W.H.[Wing-Hong], Fung, S.M.[Shun-Ming], Deng, J.W.[Jiang-Wen],
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Saidane, Z.[Zohra], Garcia, C.[Christophe],
An Automatic Method for Video Character Segmentation,
ICIAR08(xx-yy).
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Earlier:
Robust Binarization for Video Text Recognition,
ICDAR07(874-879).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
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Chen, Y.K.[Yu-Kumg], Chang, Y.F.[Yi-Fan],
Two Thresholding for Deriving the Bi-Level Document Image,
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Cavalcanti, G.D.C., Silva, E.F.A., Zanchettin, C., Bezerra, B.L.D., Doria, R.C., Rabelo, J.C.B.,
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Zhu, Y.P.[Yuan-Ping], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Dai, R.W.[Ru-Wei],
Document Image Binarization Based on Stroke Enhancement,
ICPR06(I: 955-958).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
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Liu, C.M.[Chun-Mei],
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IEEE DOI Link 1008
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Liu, C.M.[Chun-Mei], Wang, C.H.[Chun-Heng], Dai, R.W.[Ru-Wei],
Low Resolution Character Recognition by Image Quality Evaluation,
ICPR06(I: 864-867).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
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Antonacopoulos, A., Castilla, C.C.[C. Casado],
Flexible Text Recovery from Degraded Typewritten Historical Documents,
ICPR06(II: 1062-1065).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
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Kavallieratou, E.[Ergina], Stathis, S.[Stamatatos],
Adaptive Binarization of Historical Document Images,
ICPR06(III: 742-745).
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Li, Y.[Yun], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Suen, C.Y.,
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ICDAR05(II: 575-578).
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Yokobayashi, M.[Minoru], Wakahara, T.[Toru],
Binarization and Recognition of Degraded Characters Using a Maximum Separability Axis in Color Space and GAT Correlation,
ICPR06(II: 885-888).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
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ICDAR05(I: 167-171).
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Wakahara, T.[Toru],
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Wakahara, T.[Toru], Uchida, S.[Seiichi],
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ICPR10(1860-1863).
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Earlier:
Hierarchical Decomposition of Handwriting Deformation Vector Field Using 2D Warping and Global/Local Affine Transformation,
ICDAR09(1141-1145).
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Kohmura, H.[Hanako], Wakahara, T.[Toru],
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ICPR06(III: 661-664).
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Ojima, Y., Kirigaya, S., Wakahara, T.,
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ICDAR05(II: 555-559).
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Kavallieratou, E.,
A binarization algorithm specialized on document images and photos,
ICDAR05(I: 463-467).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
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Hamza, H., Smigiel, E., Belaid, E.,
Neural based binarization techniques,
ICDAR05(I: 317-321).
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Gabarra, E.[Elise], Tabbone, A.[Antoine],
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IbPRIA05(II:371).
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Sun, Y.F.[Yu-Fei], Chen, Y.[Yan], Zhang, Y.Z.[Yu-Zhi], Li, Y.X.[Yan-Xia],
Automated Seeded Region Growing Method for Document Image Binarization Based on Topographic Features,
ICIAR04(II: 200-208).
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Woo, Y.W.[Young W.],
Performance Evaluation of Binarizations of Scanned Insect Footprints,
IWCIA04(669-678).
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Binarising camera images for OCR,
ICDAR01(54-58).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
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Fan, L., Tan, C., Fan, L.,
Edge-preserving Prefiltering for Document Image Binarization,
ICIP01(I: 1070-1073).
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Wang, S.Z.[Shen-Zheng], Lee, H.J.[Hsi-Jian],
Dual-binarization and anisotropic diffusion of Chinese characters in calligraphy documents,
ICDAR01(271-275).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
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Sánchez-Valverde, J.,
Optimum Binarization of Technical Document Images,
ICIP00(Vol III: 985-988).
IEEE DOI Link 0008
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Sankur, B., Abak, A.T., Baris, U.,
Assessment of Thresholding Algorithms for Document Processing,
ICIP99(I:580-584).
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Greene, D., Yao, F., Zhang, T.[Tong],
A linear algorithm for optimal context clustering with application to bi-level image coding,
ICIP98(I: 508-511).
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Kuo, S.S., Ranganath, M.V.,
Real time image enhancement for both text and color photo images,
ICIP95(I: 159-162).
IEEE DOI Link 9510
BibRef

Eikvil, L., Taxt, T., and Moen, K.,
A Fast Adaptive Method for Binarization of Document Images,
ICDAR91(435-443). Comparison: See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 9100

Babaguchi, N., Yamada, K., Kise, K., Tezuka, Y.,
Connectionist model binarization,
ICPR90(II: 51-56).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Bernsen, J.,
Dynamic Thresholding of Grey-Level Images,
ICPR86(1251-1255). Comparison: See also Evaluation of Binarization Methods for Document Images. BibRef 8600

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Chinese and Kanji Characters .


Last update:Oct 15, 2014 at 21:10:33