23.4.6.3.1 Cursive Script, Word Level Recognition, Word Spotting, Language Model

Chapter Contents (Back)
Cursive Character Recognition. Word Recognition. Word Level Recognition. Word Spotting. For more related to word level analysis in printed documents: See also Word Level Recognition, Language Models. See also Arabic Recognition, Word Level, Word Spotting.

Sayre, K.,
Machine Recognition of Handwritten Words: A Project Report,
PR(5), No. 3, September 1973, pp. 213-228.
WWW Version. BibRef 7309

Farag, R.F.H.,
Word-Level Recognition of Cursive Script,
TC(28), No. 2, February 1979, pp. 172-175. BibRef 7902

Hayes, K.C.,
Reading Handwritten Words Using Hierarchical Relaxation,
CGIP(14), No. 4, December 1980, pp. 344-364.
WWW Version. BibRef 8012
And:
Understanding Handwriting,
UMD-TR, 1981. BibRef Ph.D.Thesis. BibRef

Brown, M.K., and Ganapathy, S.,
Preprocessing Techniques for Cursive Script Word Recognition,
PR(16), No. 5, 1983, pp. 447-458.
WWW Version. Skew Correction. Skew correction. First skew then slant. BibRef 8300

Kundu, A.[Amlan], He, Y.[Yang], Bahl, P.[Paramvir],
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PR(22), No. 3, 1989, pp. 283-297.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef
Earlier: CVPR88(457-462).
IEEE Abstract. BibRef

Kundu, A., Beach, R.,
Machine reading of handwritten text information in field technician's maps,
ICIP98(II: 943-947).
IEEE DOI Link 9810
BibRef

Simon, J.C.,
Off-Line Cursive Word Recognition,
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IEEE Top Reference. BibRef 9207

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Recognition of handwritten sentences using a restricted lexicon,
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Chen, M.Y.[Mou-Yen], Kundu, A.[Amlan], and Zhou, J.,
Off-Line Handwritten Word Recognition Using a Hidden Markov Model Type Stochastic Network,
PAMI(16), No. 5, May 1994, pp. 481-496.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9405
Earlier:
Off-line handwritten word recognition (HWR) using a single contextual hidden Markov model,
CVPR92(669-672).
IEEE Abstract. 0403
BibRef

He, Y.[Yang], Chen, M.Y.[Mou-Yen], Kundu, A.,
Off-line handwritten word recognition using HMM with adaptive length Viterbi algorithm,
ICPR94(B:460-462).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Chen, M.Y.[Mou-Yen], Kundu, A.[Amlan], and Srihari, S.N.,
Variable Duration Hidden Markov Model and Morphological Segmentation for Handwritten Word Recognition,
IP(4), No. 12, December 1995, pp. 1675-1688.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9512
Earlier: CVPR93(600-601).
IEEE Abstract. BibRef

Chen, M.Y.[Mou-Yen], Kundu, A.,
A complement to variable duration hidden Markov model in handwritten word recognition,
ICIP94(I: 174-178).
IEEE DOI Link 9411
BibRef

Kundu, A.[Amlan], He, Y.[Yang], Chen, M.Y.[Mou-Yen],
Alternatives to Variable Duration HMM in Handwriting Recognition,
PAMI(20), No. 11, November 1998, pp. 1275-1280.
IEEE DOI Link 9811
BibRef

Kundu, A., Hines, T., Huyck, B., Phillips, J., van Guilder, L.,
Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Variable Duration HMM,
ICDAR07(644-648).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Gilloux, M., Leroux, M., Bertille, J.M.,
Strategies for Cursive Script Recognition Using Hidden Markov-Models,
MVA(8), No. 4, 1995, pp. 197-205.
HTML Version. BibRef 9500

Gilloux, M.,
Writer adaptation for handwritten word recognition using hidden Markov models,
ICPR94(B:135-139).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Leroux, M., Salome, J.C., and Badard, J.,
Recognition of Cursive Script Words in a Small Lexicon,
ICDAR91(774-xx). BibRef 9100

El-Yacoubi, M.A.[Mounim A.], Gilloux, M.[Michel], Sabourin, R., Suen, C.Y.,
An HMM-Based Approach for Off-Line Unconstrained Handwritten Word Modeling and Recognition,
PAMI(21), No. 8, August 1999, pp. 752-760.
IEEE DOI Link Generate models of the written words -- shape, segmentation, shape, seg... BibRef 9908

Koerich, A.L., Sabourin, R.[Robert], Suen, C.Y.,
Recognition and Verification of Unconstrained Handwritten Words,
PAMI(27), No. 10, October 2005, pp. 1509-1522.
IEEE DOI Link 0509
Verify words from a large vocabulary. Start with segments then combine for words probabilities. BibRef

Koerich, A.L.[Alessandro L.], Sabourin, R.[Robert], Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.],
Lexicon-driven HMM decoding for large vocabulary handwriting recognition with multiple character models,
IJDAR(6), No. 2, 2003, pp. 126-144.
Springer DOI Link 0310
BibRef
Earlier:
A distributed scheme for lexicon-driven handwritten word recognition and its application to large vocabulary problems,
ICDAR01(660-664).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Koerich, A.L., Leydier, Y., Sabourin, R., Suen, C.Y.,
A hybrid large vocabulary handwritten word recognition system using neural networks with hidden markov models,
FHR02(99-104).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.], Sabourin, R.[Robert], El-Yacoubi, A.[Abdenaim],
Improved Model Architecture and Training Phase in an Off-Line HMM-Based Word Recognition System,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1521-1525).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Morita, M., Sabourin, R., Bortolozzi, F., Suen, C.Y.,
Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms for Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR03(666-670).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
See also Automatic Recognition of Handwritten Numerical Strings: A Recognition and Verification Strategy. BibRef

Clergeautournemire, S., Plamondon, R.,
Integration of Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge in a Handwriting-Recognition System,
MVA(8), No. 4, 1995, pp. 249-259.
HTML Version. BibRef 9500

Kim, G.H.[Gyeong-Hwan], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
A Lexicon Driven Approach to Handwritten Word Recognition for Real-Time Applications,
PAMI(19), No. 4, April 1997, pp. 366-379.
IEEE DOI Link 9705
Preprocessing is done on a chain code representing the word contour. Recognition on a lexicon of 10 words. BibRef

Kim, G.H.[Gyeong-Hwan], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Handwritten Phrase Recognition As Applied To Street Name Images,
PR(31), No. 1, January 1998, pp. 41-51.
WWW Version. 9802
BibRef
Earlier:
Recognition of Handwritten Phrases as Applied to Street Name Images,
CVPR96(459-464).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef
And:
Efficient Chain Code Based Image Manipulation for Handwritten Word Recognition,
SPIE(2660), 1996, pp. 262-272. BibRef

Govindaraju, V., Krishnamurthy, R.K.,
Holistic Handwritten Word Recognition Using Temporal Features Derived from Off-Line Images,
PRL(17), No. 5, May 1 1996, pp. 537-540. 9606
BibRef

Madhvanath, S.[Sriganesh], Kleinberg, E.[Evelyn], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Holistic Verification of Handwritten Phrases,
PAMI(21), No. 12, December 1999, pp. 1344-1356.
IEEE DOI Link 0001
Word verification, as for street names. See also Local reference lines for handwritten phrase recognition. BibRef

Madhvanath, S., Kleinberg, E., Govindaraju, V., Srihari, S.N.,
The Hover System for Rapid Holistic Verification of Off-Line Handwritten Phrases,
ICDAR97(855-859).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Madhvanath, S., Govindaraju, V., Srihari, S.N.,
Reading Handwritten Phrases on US Census Forms,
IJIST(7), No. 4, Winter 1996, pp. 312-319. 9612
BibRef

Madhvanath, S., Kim, G.H.[Gyeong-Hwan], Govindaraju, V.,
Chaincode Contour Processing for Handwritten Word Recognition,
PAMI(21), No. 9, September 1999, pp. 928-932.
IEEE DOI Link Chain Codes. Processing exterior contour of the signatures. BibRef 9909

Madhvanath, S.[Sriganesh], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
The Role of Holistic Paradigms in Handwritten Word Recognition,
PAMI(23), No. 2, February 2001, pp. 149-164.
IEEE DOI Link 0102
BibRef
Earlier:
Contour-Based Image Preprocessing for Holistic Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR97(536-539).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef
And:
Pruning Large Lexicons Using Generalized Word Shape Descriptors,
ICDAR97(552-555).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
The word is the entity, recognize words. See also Local reference lines for handwritten phrase recognition. BibRef

Madhvanath, S., Krpasundar, V., Govindaraju, V.,
Syntactic methodology of pruning large lexicons in cursive script recognition,
PR(34), No. 1, January 2001, pp. 37-46.
WWW Version. 0010
BibRef

Kim, G.H.[Gyeong-Hwan], Govindaraju, V., Srihari, S.N.,
A Segmentation and Recognition Strategy for Handwritten Phrases,
ICPR96(IV: 510-514).
IEEE DOI Link 9608
(State Univ. of NY-Buffalo, USA) BibRef

Dewaard, W.P.,
An Optimized Minimal Edit Distance for Hand-Written Word Recognition,
PRL(16), No. 10, October 1995, pp. 1091-1096. BibRef 9510

Eliaz, A., Geiger, D.,
Word-Level Recognition of Small Sets of Hand-Written Words,
PRL(16), No. 10, October 1995, pp. 999-1009. BibRef 9510

Cho, W.Y., Lee, S.W., Kim, J.H.,
Modeling and Recognition of Cursive Words with Hidden Markov-Models,
PR(28), No. 12, December 1995, pp. 1941-1953.
WWW Version. BibRef 9512

Gader, P.D., Mohamed, M.A., Keller, J.M.,
Dynamic-Programming-Based Handwritten Word Recognition Using the Choquet Fuzzy Integral as the Match Function,
JEI(5), No. 1, January 1996, pp. 15-24. BibRef 9601

Gader, P.D., Mohamed, M.A., Chinag, J.H.,
Comparison of Crisp and Fuzzy Character Neural Networks in Handwritten Word Recognition,
Fuzzy(3), No. 3, August 1995, pp. 357-364. BibRef 9508

Gader, P.D., Mohamed, M.A., Chiang, J.H.,
Handwritten Word Recognition with Character and Inter-Character Neural Networks,
SMC-B(27), No. 1, February 1997, pp. 158-164.
IEEE Top Reference. 9702
Compare to a given lexicon of words. BibRef

Mohamed, M.A., Gader, P.D.,
Handwritten Word Recognition Using Segmentation-Free Hidden Markov Modeling and Segmentation-Based Dynamic-Programming Techniques,
PAMI(18), No. 5, May 1996, pp. 548-554.
IEEE DOI Link 9606
Recognize words, not letters. BibRef

Gader, P.D., Whalen, M., Ganzberger, M., Hepp, D.,
Handprinted Word Recognition on a NIST Data Set,
MVA(8), No. 1, 1995, pp. 31-40. Performance Analysis. BibRef 9500

Gader, P.D., Mohamed, M.A., Keller, J.M.,
Fusion of Handwritten Word Classifiers,
PRL(17), No. 6, May 15 1996, pp. 577-584. 9607
BibRef

Chiang, J.H.,
A Hybrid Neural Network Model in Handwritten Word Recognition,
NeurNet(11), No. 2, March 1998, pp. 337-346. 9806
BibRef

Parisse, C.,
Global Word Shape Processing in Off-Line Recognition of Handwriting,
PAMI(18), No. 4, April 1996, pp. 460-464.
IEEE DOI Link 9605
Large lexicon (16000 words). Recognition by words, not letter by letter. Uses profiles (fine and coarse). BibRef

Powalka, R.K., Sherkat, N., Whitrow, R.J.,
Word Shape-Analysis for a Hybrid Recognition System,
PR(30), No. 3, March 1997, pp. 421-445.
WWW Version. 9705
BibRef

Sherkat, N.,
Influence of zoning on whole word recognition,
ICDAR05(II: 1085-1089).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Saon, G.[George],
Cursive word recognition using a random field based hidden Markov model,
IJDAR(1), No. 4 1999, pp. 199-208. BibRef 9900

Saon, G., Belaid, A.,
Off-line handwritten word recognition using a mixed HMM-MRF approach,
ICDAR97(118-122).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Zimmermann, M.[Matthias], Mao, J.[Jianchang],
Lexicon reduction using key characters in cursive handwritten words,
PRL(20), No. 11-13, November 1999, pp. 1297-1304. 0001
BibRef

Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro], Luettin, J.[Juergen],
A new normalization technique for cursive handwritten words,
PRL(22), No. 9, July 2001, pp. 1043-1050.
Elsevier DOI Link 0106
BibRef

Verma, B., Gader, P.D., Chen, W.T.,
Fusion of multiple handwritten word recognition techniques,
PRL(22), No. 9, July 2001, pp. 991-998.
Elsevier DOI Link 0106
BibRef

Liu, J.H.[Jin-Hui], Gader, P.D.[Paul D.],
Neural networks with enhanced outlier rejection ability for off-line handwritten word recognition,
PR(35), No. 10, October 2002, pp. 2061-2071.
WWW Version. 0206
BibRef
Earlier:
Outlier Rejection with MLPs and Variants of RBF Networks,
ICPR00(Vol II: 680-683).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
BibRef

Marti, U.V., Bunke, H.,
The IAM-database: an English sentence database for offline handwriting recognition,
IJDAR(5), No. 1, 2002, pp. 39-46.
HTML Version. 0211
BibRef
Earlier:
On the influence of vocabulary size and language models in unconstrained handwritten text recognition,
ICDAR01(260-265).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Marti, U.V., Messerli, R., Bunke, H.,
Writer identification using text line based features,
ICDAR01(101-105).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Marti, U.V., Bunke, H.,
Text line segmentation and word recognition in a system for general writer independent handwriting recognition,
ICDAR01(159-163).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Marti, U.V., Bunke, H.,
Handwritten Sentence Recognition,
ICPR00(Vol III: 463-466).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
BibRef

Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro],
A survey on off-line Cursive Word Recognition,
PR(35), No. 7, July 2002, pp. 1433-1446.
WWW Version. 0204
Survey, Handwriting. BibRef

Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro], Bengio, S.[Samy],
Writer adaptation techniques in HMM based Off-Line Cursive Script Recognition,
PRL(23), No. 8, June 2002, pp. 905-916.
Elsevier DOI Link 0204
BibRef
Earlier:
Writer adaptation techniques in off-line cursive word recognition,
FHR02(287-291).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef
Earlier:
Offline cursive word recognition using continuous density hidden Markov models trained with PCA or ICA features,
ICPR02(III: 81-84).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro], Bengio, S.[Samy], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Offline Recognition of Unconstrained Handwritten Texts Using HMMs and Statistical Language Models,
PAMI(26), No. 6, June 2004, pp. 709-720.
IEEE Abstract. 0404
BibRef
Earlier:
Offline Recognition of Large Vocabulary Cursive Handwritten Text,
ICDAR03(1101-1105).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
Use language models to improve recognition of cursive script. BibRef

Zimmermann, M., Bunke, H.,
Optimizing the integration of a statistical language model in HMM based offline handwritten text recognition,
ICPR04(II: 541-544).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Bertolami, R.[Roman], Zimmermann, M.[Matthias], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Rejection Strategies for Offline Handwritten Text Line Recognition,
PRL(27), No. 16, December 2006, pp. 2005-2012.
WWW Version. 0611
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Rejection strategies for offline handwritten sentence recognition,
ICPR04(II: 550-553).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
Handwritten text recognition; Rejection strategies; Statistical language model BibRef

Bertolami, R.[Roman], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Hidden Markov Model-Based Ensemble Methods for Offline Handwritten Text Line Recognition,
PR(41), No. 11, November 2008, pp. 3452-3460.
WWW Version. 0808
BibRef
Earlier:
Multiple Handwritten Text Line Recognition Systems Derived from Specific Integration of a Language Model,
ICDAR05(I: 521-527).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
Offline handwritten text line recognition; Ensemble methods; Confidence measures BibRef

Bunke, H., Roth, M., Schukat-Talamazzini, E.G.,
Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Recognition Using Hidden Markov-Models,
PR(28), No. 9, September 1995, pp. 1399-1413.
WWW Version. BibRef 9509
Earlier:
Off-line recognition of cursive script produced by a cooperative writer,
ICPR94(B:383-386).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Camastra, F.[Francesco], Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro],
Cursive character recognition by learning vector quantization,
PRL(22), No. 6-7, May 2001, pp. 625-629.
Elsevier DOI Link 0105
BibRef

Camastra, F.[Francesco], Spinetti, M.[Marco], Vinciarelli, A.[Alessandro],
Offline Cursive Character Challenge: a New Benchmark for Machine Learning and Pattern Recognition Algorithms.,
ICPR06(II: 913-916).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Camastra, F.[Francesco],
A SVM-based cursive character recognizer,
PR(40), No. 12, December 2007, pp. 3721-3727.
WWW Version. 0709
Support vector machines; Neural gas; Learning vector quantization; Multi-layer-perceptron; Crossvalidation; Cursive character recognition BibRef

Pitrelli, J.F.[John F.], Roy, A.[Amit],
Creating word-level language models for large-vocabulary handwriting recognition,
IJDAR(5), No. 2-3, April 2003, pp. 126-137.
HTML Version. 0308
BibRef
Earlier:
Creating word-level language models for handwriting recognition,
ICDAR01(721-725).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Pitrelli, J.F.[John F.], Subrahmonia, J.[Jayashree], Perrone, M.P.[Michael P.],
Confidence modeling for handwriting recognition: Algorithms and Applications,
IJDAR(8), No. 1, April 2006, pp. 35-46.
Springer DOI Link 0605
BibRef

Pitrelli, J.F., Perrone, M.P.,
Confidence-scoring post-processing for off-line handwritten-character recognition verification,
ICDAR03(278-282).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef
Earlier:
Confidence modeling for verification post-processing for handwriting recognition,
FHR02(30-35).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

Günter, S.[Simon], Bunke, H.[Horst],
HMM-based handwritten word recognition: on the optimization of the number of states, training iterations and Gaussian components,
PR(37), No. 10, October 2004, pp. 2069-2079.
WWW Version. 0409
BibRef
Earlier:
Optimizing the number of states, training iterations and Gaussians in an HMM-based handwritten word recognizer,
ICDAR03(472-476).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Graves, A.[Alex], Liwicki, M.[Marcus], Fernández, S.[Santiago], Bertolami, R.[Roman], Bunke, H.[Horst], Schmidhuber, J.[Jürgen],
A Novel Connectionist System for Unconstrained Handwriting Recognition,
PAMI(31), No. 5, May 2009, pp. 855-868.
IEEE DOI Link 0903
Issues of segmentation and context. NN for sequence labelling without segmentation. BibRef

Indermuhle, E.[Emanuel], Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Mode Detection in Online Handwritten Documents Using BLSTM Neural Networks,
FHR12(302-307).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Indermuhle, E.[Emanuel], Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Keyword Spotting in Online Handwritten Documents Containing Text and Non-text Using BLSTM Neural Networks,
ICDAR11(73-77).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Manmatha, R., Bunke, H.[Horst],
A Novel Word Spotting Method Based on Recurrent Neural Networks,
PAMI(34), No. 2, February 2012, pp. 211-224.
IEEE DOI Link 1112
Derived from NN approach for handwriting recognition. Not necessary for keyword to appear in training set. BibRef

Liwicki, M., Indermuhle, E., Bunke, H.,
On-Line Handwritten Text Line Detection Using Dynamic Programming,
ICDAR07(447-451).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Liwicki, M.[Marcus], Scherz, M.[Mathias], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Word Extraction from On-Line Handwritten Text Lines,
ICPR06(II: 929-933).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Self-training for Handwritten Text Line Recognition,
CIARP10(104-112).
Springer DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Varga, T., Bunke, H.,
Tree structure for word extraction from handwritten text lines,
ICDAR05(I: 352-356).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef
Earlier:
Off-line handwritten textline recognition using a mixture of natural and synthetic training data,
ICPR04(II: 545-549).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef
Earlier:
Generation of synthetic training data for an HMM-based handwriting recognition system,
ICDAR03(618-622).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Günter, S.[Simon], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Feature selection algorithms for the generation of multiple classifier systems and their application to handwritten word recognition,
PRL(25), No. 11, August 2004, pp. 1323-1336.
WWW Version. 0409
BibRef

Zimmermann, M., Chappelier, J.C., Bunke, H.,
Offline Grammar-Based Recognition of Handwritten Sentences,
PAMI(28), No. 5, May 2006, pp. 818-821.
IEEE DOI Link 0604
BibRef
Earlier:
Parsing N-best lists of handwritten sentences,
ICDAR03(572-576).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Rath, T.M.[Toni M.], Manmatha, R.,
Word spotting for historical documents,
IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 139-152.
Springer DOI Link 0704
BibRef
And: IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 299.
Springer DOI Link 0704
BibRef
Earlier:
Word image matching using dynamic time warping,
CVPR03(II: 521-527).
IEEE Abstract. 0307
BibRef
And:
Features for word spotting in historical manuscripts,
ICDAR03(218-222).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Lavrenko, V., Rath, T.M.[Toni M.], Manmatha, R.,
Holistic word recognition for handwritten historical documents,
DIAL04(278-287).
IEEE DOI Link 0404
BibRef

Adamek, T.[Tomasz], O'Connor, N.E.[Noel E.], Smeaton, A.F.[Alan F.],
Word matching using single closed contours for indexing handwritten historical documents,
IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 153-165.
Springer DOI Link 0704
See also multiscale representation method for nonrigid shapes with a single closed contour, A. BibRef

Konidaris, T., Gatos, B., Ntzios, K., Pratikakis, I.E., Theodoridis, S., Perantonis, S.J.,
Keyword-guided word spotting in historical printed documents using synthetic data and user feedback,
IJDAR(9), No. 2-4, April 2007, pp. 167-177.
Springer DOI Link 0704
See also Handwritten character recognition through two-stage foreground sub-sampling. BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilis], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.],
Segmentation-Free Word Spotting in Historical Printed Documents,
ICDAR09(271-275).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Ruiz-Pinales, J.[Jose], Jaime-Rivas, R.[Rene], Castro-Bleda, M.J.[Maria Jose],
Holistic cursive word recognition based on perceptual features,
PRL(28), No. 13, 1 October 2007, pp. 1600-1609.
WWW Version. 0709
Holistic cursive script recognition; Perceptual features; Convolutional feature extraction BibRef

Farooq, F.[Faisal], Jose, D.[Damien], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Phrase-based correction model for improving handwriting recognition accuracies,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3271-3277.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
Post-processing; Noisy channel; Handwriting recognition; Error correction; Viterbi decoding BibRef

Howe, N.R.[Nicholas R.], Feng, S.L.[Shao-Lei], Manmatha, R.,
Finding words in alphabet soup: Inference on freeform character recognition for historical scripts,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3338-3347.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
Character recognition; Cursive text; Historical text BibRef

Cao, H.G.[Huai-Gu], Bhardwaj, A.[Anurag], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
A probabilistic method for keyword retrieval in handwritten document images,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3374-3382.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
Word spotting; Information retrieval; Handwriting recognition BibRef

Cao, H.G.[Huai-Gu], Govindaraju, V.[Venu], Bhardwaj, A.[Anurag],
Unconstrained handwritten document retrieval,
IJDAR(14), No. 2, June 2011, pp. 145-157.
WWW Version. 1106
See also Automatic recognition of handwritten medical forms for search engines. BibRef

Li, Q.[Qing], Chen, Y.P.[Yuanzhu Peter],
Personalized text snippet extraction using statistical language models,
PR(43), No. 1, January 2010, pp. 378-386.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
Text snippet extraction; Personalization; Language model; Information retrieval; Natural language processing; Pattern discovery; Hidden Markov Model BibRef

Farooq, F.[Faisal], Bhardwaj, A.[Anurag], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Using topic models for OCR correction,
IJDAR(12), No. 3, September 2009, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 0911
BibRef

Can, E.F.[Ethem Fatih], Duygulu, P.[Pinar],
A line-based representation for matching words in historical manuscripts,
PRL(32), No. 8, 1 June 2011, pp. 1126-1138.
Elsevier DOI Link 1101
Historical manuscripts; Word image matching; Word retrieval; Word spotting; Line-based representation BibRef

Can, E.F.[Ethem Fatih], Duygulu, P.[Pinar], Can, F.[Fazli], Kalpakli, M.[Mehmet],
Redif Extraction in Handwritten Ottoman Literary Texts,
ICPR10(1941-1944).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Ataer, E.[Esra], Duygulu, P.[Pinar],
Matching Ottoman Words: An image retrieval approach to historical document indexing,
CIVR07(341-347).
DOI Link 0707
BibRef

Ataer, E.[Esra], Duygulu, P.[Pinar],
Retrieval of Ottoman documents,
MIR06(155-162).
DOI Link 0707
BibRef

Bianne-Bernard, A.L.[Anne-Laure], Menasri, F.[Fares], Mohamad, R.A.H.[Rami Al-Hajj], Mokbel, C.[Chafic], Kermorvant, C.[Christopher], Likforman-Sulem, L.[Laurence],
Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition,
PAMI(33), No. 10, October 2011, pp. 2066-2080.
IEEE DOI Link 1109
Word recognition by combining 3 separate handwritting techniques. Contextual modeling and dynamic modeling improves recognition. BibRef

Kermorvant, C., Menasri, F., Bianne-Bernard, A.L.[Anne-Laure], Mohamad, R.A.H.[Rami Al-Hajj], Mokbel, C., Likforman-Sulem, L.,
The A2iA-Telecom ParisTech-UOB System for the ICDAR 2009 Handwriting Recognition Competition,
FHR10(247-252).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Fischer, A.[Andreas], Keller, A.[Andreas], Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Lexicon-free handwritten word spotting using character HMMs,
PRL(33), No. 7, 1 May 2012, pp. 934-942.
Elsevier DOI Link 1203
BibRef
HMM-based Word Spotting in Handwritten Documents Using Subword Models,
ICPR10(3416-3419).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
Award, ICPR. Handwriting recognition; Keyword spotting; Hidden Markov Models BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Baumgartner, M.[Markus], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Semi-supervised Learning for Cursive Handwriting Recognition Using Keyword Spotting,
FHR12(49-54).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Evaluating Retraining Rules for Semi-Supervised Learning in Neural Network Based Cursive Word Recognition,
ICDAR09(31-35).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Fischer, A.[Andreas], Indermuhle, E.[Emanuel], Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Bunke, H.[Horst],
HMM-Based Alignment of Inaccurate Transcriptions for Historical Documents,
ICDAR11(53-57).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Bunke, H.[Horst], Manmatha, R.,
Adapting BLSTM Neural Network Based Keyword Spotting Trained on Modern Data to Historical Documents,
FHR10(352-357).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Bunke, H.[Horst], Foornes, A.[Alicia],
Co-training for Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR11(314-318).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Jain, R.[Raman], Frinken, V.[Volkmar], Jawahar, C.V., Manmatha, R.,
BLSTM Neural Network Based Word Retrieval for Hindi Documents,
ICDAR11(83-87).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Khurshid, K.[Khurram], Faure, C.[Claudie], Vincent, N.[Nicole],
Word spotting in historical printed documents using shape and sequence comparisons,
PR(45), No. 7, July 2012, pp. 2598-2609.
Elsevier DOI Link 1203
BibRef
Earlier:
Fusion of Word Spotting and Spatial Information for Figure Caption Retrieval in Historical Document Images,
ICDAR09(266-270).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef
Earlier:
A Novel Approach for Word Spotting Using Merge-Split Edit Distance,
CAIP09(213-220).
Springer DOI Link 0909
Word spotting; Historical documents; Digital libraries; Dynamic Time Warping; Segmentation-driven string matching; Information retrieval BibRef

Liang, Y., Fairhurst, M.C., Guest, R.M.,
A synthesised word approach to word retrieval in handwritten documents,
PR(45), No. 12, December 2012, pp. 4225-4236.
Elsevier DOI Link 1208
BibRef
And: A1, A3, A2:
Implementing Word Retrieval in Handwritten Documents Using a Small Dataset,
FHR12(728-733).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
Handwriting analysis; Digital archives; Handwritten word retrieval; Word spotting; Information retrieval; Handwriting recognition; Historical manuscript analysis BibRef

Alabau, V.[Vicent], Sanchis, A.[Alberto], Casacuberta, F.[Francisco],
On the optimal decision rule for sequential interactive structured prediction,
PRL(33), No. 16, 1 December 2012, pp. 2226-2231.
Elsevier DOI Link 1210
Interactive pattern recognition; Minimum Bayes risk; Human interaction; Machine translation; Handwritten text recognition; Automatic speech recognition BibRef

Alabau, V.[Vicent], Sanchis, A.[Alberto], Casacuberta, F.[Francisco],
Improving on-line handwritten recognition in interactive machine translation,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1217-1228.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
Interactive pattern recognition BibRef

Tarazón, L.[Lionel], Pérez, D.[Daniel], Serrano, N.[Nicolás], Alabau, V.[Vicent], Terrades, O.R.[Oriol Ramos], Sanchis, A.[Alberto], Juan, A.[Alfons],
Confidence Measures for Error Correction in Interactive Transcription Handwritten Text,
CIAP09(567-574).
Springer DOI Link 0909
BibRef

Wshah, S.[Safwan], Kumar, G.[Gaurav], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Statistical script independent word spotting in offline handwritten documents,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1039-1050.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Multilingual word spotting in offline handwritten documents,
ICPR12(310-313).
WWW Version. 1302
Script independent BibRef

van Oosten, J.P.[Jean-Paul], Schomaker, L.[Lambert],
Separability versus prototypicality in handwritten word-image retrieval,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1031-1038.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
BibRef
Earlier:
Separability versus Prototypicality in Handwritten Word Retrieval,
FHR12(8-13).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
Image retrieval BibRef

Rusiñol, M.[Marçal], Lladós, J.[Josep],
Boosting the handwritten word spotting experience by including the user in the loop,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 1063-1072.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
Handwritten word spotting BibRef


Bluche, T., Ney, H., Kermorvant, C.,
Feature Extraction with Convolutional Neural Networks for Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR13(285-289)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
feature extraction BibRef

Zhu, B.[Bilan], Shivram, A., Setlur, S., Govindaraju, V., Nakagawa, M.,
Online Handwritten Cursive Word Recognition Using Segmentation-Free MRF in Combination with P2DBMN-MQDF,
ICDAR13(349-353)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Markov processes BibRef

Toselli, A.H., Vidal, E.,
Fast HMM-Filler Approach for Key Word Spotting in Handwritten Documents,
ICDAR13(501-505)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Viterbi decoding BibRef

Wang, P.[Peng], Eglin, V., Garcia, C., Largeron, C., McKenna, A.,
A Comprehensive Representation Model for Handwriting Dedicated to Word Spotting,
ICDAR13(450-454)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Howe, N.R.,
Part-Structured Inkball Models for One-Shot Handwritten Word Spotting,
ICDAR13(582-586)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Zhang, H.[Heng], Zhou, X.D.[Xiang-Dong], Liu, C.L.[Cheng-Lin],
Keyword Spotting in Online Chinese Handwritten Documents with Candidate Scoring Based on Semi-CRF Model,
ICDAR13(567-571)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Markov processes BibRef

Kessentini, Y., Chatelain, C., Paquet, T.,
Word Spotting and Regular Expression Detection in Handwritten Documents,
ICDAR13(516-520)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Zhang, X.[Xi], Tan, C.L.,
Segmentation-Free Keyword Spotting for Handwritten Documents Based on Heat Kernel Signature,
ICDAR13(827-831)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Shivram, A., Zhu, B.[Bilan], Setlur, S., Nakagawa, M., Govindaraju, V.,
Segmentation Based Online Word Recognition: A Conditional Random Field Driven Beam Search Strategy,
ICDAR13(852-856)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
handwritten character recognition BibRef

Pantke, W., Margner, V., Fingscheidt, T.,
On Evaluation of Segmentation-Free Word Spotting Approaches without Hard Decisions,
ICDAR13(1300-1304)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Rothacker, L., Rusinol, M., Fink, G.A.,
Bag-of-Features HMMs for Segmentation-Free Word Spotting in Handwritten Documents,
ICDAR13(1305-1309)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Zhang, X.[Xi], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Handwritten Word Image Matching Based on Heat Kernel Signature,
CAIP13(II:42-49).
Springer DOI Link 1311
BibRef

Malagon, C., Rizky, R., Kim, Y., Marzal, F., Izquierdo, L.,
Automatic Abbreviation Detection in Medieval Medical Documents,
FHR12(337-342).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Devlin, J.[Jacob], Kamali, M.[Matin], Subramanian, K.[Krishna], Prasad, R.[Rohit], Natarajan, P.[Prem],
Statistical Machine Translation as a Language Model for Handwriting Recognition,
FHR12(291-296).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Haji, M.[Mehdi], Sahoo, K.A.[Kalyan Asis], Bui, T.D.[Tien D.], Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.], Ponson, D.[Dominique],
Statistical Hypothesis Testing for Handwritten Word Segmentation Algorithms,
FHR12(114-119).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Yuan, A.[Aiquan], Bai, G.[Gang], Yang, P.[Po], Guo, Y.[Yanni], Zhao, X.T.[Xin-Ting],
Handwritten English Word Recognition Based on Convolutional Neural Networks,
FHR12(207-212).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Wshah, S.[Safwan], Kumar, G.[Gaurav], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Script Independent Word Spotting in Offline Handwritten Documents Based on Hidden Markov Models,
FHR12(14-19).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Rusinol, M.[Marcal], Llados, J.[Josep],
The Role of the Users in Handwritten Word Spotting Applications: Query Fusion and Relevance Feedback,
FHR12(55-60).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Simistira, F.[Fotini], Papavassiliou, V.[Vassilis], Stafylakis, T.[Themos], Katsouros, V.[Vassilis],
Enhancing Handwritten Word Segmentation by Employing Local Spatial Features,
ICDAR11(1314-1318).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Guichard, L.[Laurent], Chazalon, J.[Joseph], Couasnon, B.[Bertrand],
Exploiting Collection Level for Improving Assisted Handwritten Word Transcription of Historical Documents,
ICDAR11(875-879).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Hamamura, T.[Tomoyuki], Irie, B.[Bunpei], Nishimoto, T.[Takuya], Ono, N.[Nobutaka], Sagayama, S.[Shigeki],
Concurrent Optimization of Context Clustering and GMM for Offline Handwritten Word Recognition Using HMM,
ICDAR11(523-527).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Roy, P.P.[Partha Pratim], Bhowmick, S.[Souvik], Pal, U.[Umapada], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean Yves],
Signature Based Document Retrieval Using GHT of Background Information,
FHR12(225-230).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Roy, P.P.[Partha Pratim], Ramel, J.Y.[Jean-Yves], Ragot, N.[Nicolas],
Word Retrieval in Historical Document Using Character-Primitives,
ICDAR11(678-682).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Chowriappa, A.[Ashirwad], Rodrigues, R.N.[Ricardo N.], Kesavadas, T.[Thenkurussi], Govindaraju, V.[Venu], Bisantz, A.[Ann],
Generation of Handwriting by Active Shape Modeling and Global Local Approximation (GLA) Adaptation,
FHR10(206-211).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Chen, Q.[Qi], Gong, T.[Tianxia], Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim], Pang, B.C.[Boon Chuan],
A Medical Knowledge Based Postprocessing Approach for Doctor's Handwriting Recognition,
FHR10(45-50).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Burger, T.[Thomas], Kessentini, Y.[Yousri], Paquet, T.[Thierry],
Dempster-Shafer Based Rejection Strategy for Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR11(528-532).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef
Earlier:
Dealing with Precise and Imprecise Decisions with a Dempster-Shafer Theory Based Algorithm in the Context of Handwritten Word Recognition,
FHR10(369-374).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Sarkar, A.[Aisharjya], Biswas, A.[Arindam], Bhowmick, P.[Partha], Bhattacharya, B.B.[Bhargab B.],
Word Segmentation and Baseline Detection in Handwritten Documents Using Isothetic Covers,
FHR10(445-450).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Guichard, L.[Laurent], Toselli, A.H.[Alejandro H.], Couasnon, B.[Bertrand],
Handwritten Word Verification by SVM-Based Hypotheses Re-scoring and Multiple Thresholds Rejection,
FHR10(57-62).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef
And:
A Novel Verification System for Handwritten Words Recognition,
ICPR10(2869-2872).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Koerich, A.L.[Alessandro L.], de Souza Britto, Jr., A.[Alceu], Soares de Oliveira, L.E.[Luiz Eduardo],
Verification of Unconstrained Handwritten Words at Character Level,
FHR10(39-44).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Tran, D.C.[De Cao], Franco, P.[Patrick], Ogier, J.M.[Jean-Marc],
Accented Handwritten Character Recognition Using SVM: Application to French,
FHR10(65-71).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Bui, Q.A.[Quang Anh], Visani, M., Mullot, R.,
Invariants Extraction Method Applied in an Omni-language Old Document Navigating System,
ICDAR13(1325-1329)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document handling BibRef

Bui, Q.A.[Quang Anh], Visani, M.[Muriel], Prum, S.[Sophea], Ogier, J.M.[Jean-Marc],
Writer Identification Using TF-IDF for Cursive Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR11(844-848).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Prum, S.[Sophea], Visani, M.[Muriel], Ogier, J.M.[Jean-Marc],
Cursive On-line Handwriting Word Recognition Using a Bi-character Model for Large Lexicon Applications,
FHR10(194-199).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef
And:
On-Line Handwriting Word Recognition Using a Bi-character Model,
ICPR10(2700-2703).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Sarkar, K.[Kamal],
Automatic Keyphrase Extraction from Medical Documents,
PReMI09(273-278).
Springer DOI Link 0912
BibRef

de Oliveira, Jr., J.J., de A. Freitas, C.O.[Cinthia O.], de Carvalho, J.M., Sabourin, R.,
Handwritten Word Recognition Using Multi-view Analysis,
CIARP09(371-378).
Springer DOI Link 0911
BibRef

Wüthrich, M.[Markus], Liwicki, M.[Marcus], Fischer, A.[Andreas], Indermühle, E.[Emanuel], Bunke, H.[Horst], Viehhauser, G.[Gabriel], Stolz, M.[Michael],
Language Model Integration for the Recognition of Handwritten Medieval Documents,
ICDAR09(211-215).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Ahmad, A.R.[Abdul Rahim], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Khalid, M.[Marzuki],
Lexicon-Based Word Recognition Using Support Vector Machine and Hidden Markov Model,
ICDAR09(161-165).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Imura, H.[Hajime], Tanaka, Y.[Yuzuru],
A Full-Text Search System for Images of Hand-Written Cursive Documents,
FHR10(640-645).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Imura, H.[Hajime], Tanaka, Y.[Yuzuru],
Compression and String Matching Method for Printed Document Images,
ICDAR09(291-295).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Terasawa, K.[Kengo], Imura, H.[Hajime], Tanaka, Y.[Yuzuru],
Automatic Evaluation Framework for Word Spotting,
ICDAR09(276-280).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Andreev, A.[Andrey], Kirov, N.[Nikolay],
Word Image Matching Based on Hausdorff Distances,
ICDAR09(396-400).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Moghaddam, R.F.[Reza Farrahi], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
Application of Multi-Level Classifiers and Clustering for Automatic Word Spotting in Historical Document Images,
ICDAR09(511-515).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
See also multi-scale framework for adaptive binarization of degraded document images, A. BibRef

Impedovo, S.[Sebastiano], Ferrante, A.[Anna], Modugno, R.[Raffaele],
HMM Based Handwritten Word Recognition System by Using Singularities,
ICDAR09(783-787).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Terasawa, K.[Kengo], Tanaka, Y.[Yuzuru],
Slit Style HOG Feature for Document Image Word Spotting,
ICDAR09(116-120).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Roy, A.[Anandarup], Parui, S.K.[Swapan Kumar], Paul, A.[Amitav], Roy, U.[Utpal],
A Color Based Image Segmentation and its Application to Text Segmentation,
ICCVGIP08(313-319).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Bhowmik, T.K.[Tapan K.], Parui, S.K.[Swapan K.], Roy, U.[Utpal],
Discriminative HMM training with GA for handwritten word recognition,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Bhowmik, T.K.[Tapan K.], Parui, S.K.[Swapan K.], Kar, M.[Manika], Roy, U.[Utpal],
HMM Parameter Estimation with Genetic Algorithm for Handwritten Word Recognition,
PReMI07(536-544).
Springer DOI Link 0712
BibRef

Almaksour, A.[Abdullah], Anquetil, E.[Eric],
Fast Incremental Learning Strategy Driven by Confusion Reject for Online Handwriting Recognition,
ICDAR09(81-85).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Quiniou, S.[Solen], Anquetil, E.[Eric],
Use of a Confusion Network to Detect and Correct Errors in an On-Line Handwritten Sentence Recognition System,
ICDAR07(382-386).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Shetty, S., Srinivasan, H., Srihari, S.,
Handwritten Word Recognition Using Conditional Random Fields,
ICDAR07(1098-1102).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Hirayama, J.[Junichi], Nakayama, H.[Hidehisa], Kato, N.[Nei],
A Classifier of Similar Characters using Compound Mahalanobis Function based on Difference Subspace,
ICDAR07(432-436).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Inoue, R.[Ryo], Nakayama, H.[Hidehisa], Kato, N.[Nei],
Historical Hand-Written String Recognition by Non-linear Discriminant Analysis using Kernel Feature Selection,
ICPR06(II: 1094-1097).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Gatos, B.[Basilios], Pratikakis, I.E.[Ioannis E.], Perantonis, S.J.[Stavros J.],
Hybrid Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Word Recognition,
ICPR06(II: 998-1002).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Cheng, C.K.[Chun Ki], Blumenstein, M.,
The neural-based segmentation of cursive words using enhanced heuristics,
ICDAR05(II: 650-654).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Rusu, A., Govindaraju, V.,
A human interactive proof algorithm using handwriting recognition,
ICDAR05(II: 967-971).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Jaeger, S., Ma, H., Doermann, D.,
Identifying script on word-level with informational confidence,
ICDAR05(I: 416-420).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Sas, J.[Jerzy], Markowska-Kaczmar, U.[Urszula],
Semi-automatic Training Sets Acquisition for Handwriting Recognition,
CAIP07(531-538).
Springer DOI Link 0708
BibRef

Kurzynski, M.[Marek], Sas, J.[Jerzy],
Combining Character Level Classifier and Probabilistic Lexicons in Handwritten Word Recognition: Comparative Analysis of Methods,
CAIP05(330).
Springer DOI Link 0509
BibRef

Günter, S.[Simon], Bunke, H.[Horst],
Ensembles of Classifiers for Handwritten Word Recognition Specialized on Individual Handwriting Style,
DAS04(286-297).
WWW Version. 0505
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Ma, H.F.[Huan-Feng], Doermann, D.,
Adaptive OCR with limited user feedback,
ICDAR05(II: 814-818).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef
Earlier:
Adaptive word style classification using a gaussian mixture model,
ICPR04(II: 606-609).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Dupre, X., Augustin, E.,
Hidden markov models for couples of letters applied to handwriting recognition,
ICPR04(II: 618-621).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Azzabou, N., Likforman-Sulem, L.,
Neural network-based proper names extraction in fax images,
ICPR04(I: 421-424).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Likforman-Sulem, L., Vaillant, P., Yvon, F.,
Proper names extraction from fax images combining textual and image features,
ICDAR03(545-549).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Liu, X.[Xia], Shi, Z.[Zhixin],
A format-driven handwritten word recognition system,
ICDAR03(1118-1122).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Quiniou, S., Anquetil, E., Carbonnel, S.,
Statistical language models for on-line handwritten sentence recognition,
ICDAR05(I: 516-520).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Carbonnel, S., Anquetil, E.,
Lexical post-processing optimization for handwritten word recognition,
ICDAR03(477-481).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Schambach, M.P.[Marc-Peter],
Reviewing Performance Metrics for Handwriting Recognition: Must-Rejects and Recognition Graph Scores,
FHR10(457-462).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Schambach, M.P.[Marc-Peter],
Recurrent HMMs and Cursive Handwriting Recognition Graphs,
ICDAR09(1146-1150).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Schambach, M.P.,
Fast script word recognition with very large vocabulary,
ICDAR05(I: 9-13).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef
Earlier:
Determination of the number of writing variants with an HMM based cursive word recognition system,
ICDAR03(119-123).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef
And:
Model length adaptation of an HMM based cursive word recognition system,
ICDAR03(109-113).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Ishidera, E.[Eiki], Lucas, S.M.[Simon M.], Downton, A.C.[Andrew C.],
Top-Down Likelihood Word Image Generation Model for Holistic Word Recognition,
DAS02(82 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303
BibRef
And:
Likelihood word image generation model for word recognition,
ICPR02(III: 172-175).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

Ishidera, E., Nishiwaki, D.,
A study on top-down word image generation for handwritten word recognition,
ICDAR03(1173-1177).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Wang, W.W.[Wen-Wei], Brakensiek, A., Rigoll, G.,
Combining HMM-based two-pass classifiers for off-line word recognition,
ICPR02(III: 151-154).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef
And:
Combination of multiple classifiers for handwritten word recognition,
FHR02(117-122).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
See also Evaluation of Confidence Measures for On-Line Handwriting Recognition. BibRef

Wang, W.W.[Wen-Wei], Brakensiek, A., Kosmala, A., Rigoll, G.,
Multi-branch and two-pass HMM modeling approaches for off-line cursive handwriting recognition,
ICDAR01(231-235).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Schuessler, M.,
Automating performance optimization for script word recognition systems,
FHR02(139-144).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

Al-Ohali, Y., Cheriet, M., Suen, C.Y.,
Dynamic observations and dynamic state termination for off-line handwritten word recognition using HMM,
FHR02(314-319).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef
And:
Introducing termination probabilities to HMM,
ICPR02(III: 319-322).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

Al-Ohali, Y., Cheriet, M., Suen, C.Y.,
Efficient estimation of pen trajectory from off-line handwritten words,
ICPR02(III: 323-326).
IEEE DOI Link 0211
BibRef

de Oliveira, J.J., de Carvalho, J.M., de A. Freitas, C.O., Sabourin, R.,
Feature sets evaluation for handwritten word recognition,
FHR02(446-451).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

de A. Freitas, C.O., Bortolozzi, F., Sabourin, R.,
Handwritten isolated word recognition: an approach based on Mutual Information for feature set validation,
ICDAR01(665-669).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Tay, Y.H.[Yong Haur], Lallican, P.M., Khalid, M., Knerr, S., Viard-Gaudin, C.,
An analytical handwritten word recognition system with word-level discriminant training,
ICDAR01(726-730).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Lucas, S.M., Tams, A.C., Cho, S.J., Ryu, S., Downton, A.C.,
Robust word recognition for museum archive card indexing,
ICDAR01(144-148).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Koshinaka, T., Nishiwaki, D., Yamada, K.,
A stochastic model for handwritten word recognition using context dependency between character patterns,
ICDAR01(154-158).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Kwok, T.Y., Perrone, M.P.,
Adaptive N-best-list handwritten word recognition,
ICDAR01(168-172).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Loo, P.K.[Poh Kok], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Detection of word groups based on irregular pyramid,
ICDAR01(200-204).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Lu, Y.[Yue], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim], Huang, W.H.[Wei-Hua], Fan, L.Y.[Li-Ying],
An approach to word image matching based on weighted Hausdorff distance,
ICDAR01(921-925).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Bojovic, M.[Marija], Savic, M.D.[Minan D.],
Training of Hidden Markov Models for Cursive Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICPR00(Vol I: 973-976).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
BibRef

El-Nasan, A., Nagy, G.,
Ink-link,
ICPR00(Vol II: 573-576).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
Word matching using features of the curve BibRef

Ding, Y., Kimura, F., Miyake, Y., Shridhar, M.,
Accuracy Improvement of Slant Estimation for Handwritten Words,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 527-530).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
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Kim, J.H., Kim, K.K., Nadal, C.P., Suen, C.Y.,
A Methodology of Combining HMM and MLP Classifiers for Cursive Word Recognition,
ICPR00(Vol II: 319-322).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
BibRef

Augustin, E., Knerr, S.,
A Neural Network-Hidden Markov Model Hybrid for Cursive Word Recognition,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1518-1520).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Manmatha, R., Han, C.F.[Cheng-Feng], Riseman, E.M.,
Word Spotting: A New Approach to Indexing Handwriting,
CVPR96(631-637).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9600
And:
Word Spotting,
UMassCS TR 95-105, December, 1995.
Postscript Version. Template match on the extracted words. BibRef

Manmatha, R., Han, C.F.[Cheng-Feng], Riseman, E.M., Croft, W.B.,
Indexing Handwriting Using Word Matching,
UMassCS TR 95-89, December, 1995.
Postscript Version. BibRef 9512

Shridhar, M., Kartheepan, M., Houle, G.F., Kimura, F.,
Handwritten Word Recognition Using Lexicon Free and Lexicon Directed Word Recognition Algorithms,
ICDAR97(861-865).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Hero, III, A.O., O'Neill, J.C., Williams, W.J.,
Moment Matrices for Recognition of Spatial Pattern in Noisy Images,
ICIP97(II: 378-381).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9700
Earlier: A2, A1, A3:
Word spotting via spatial point processes,
ICIP96(II: 217-220).
IEEE DOI Link 9610
BibRef

Buse, R., Liu, Z.Q.A.[Zhi-Qi-Ang],
Feature extraction and analysis of handwritten words in grey-scale images using Gabor filters,
ICIP94(I: 164-168).
IEEE DOI Link 9411
BibRef

Le Cun, Y.L.[Yann L.], Bengio, Y.[Yoshua],
Word-level training of a handwritten word recognizer based on convolutional neural networks,
ICPR94(B:88-92).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Bengio, Y.[Yoshua], Le Cun, Y.L.[Yann L.],
Word normalization for online handwritten word recognition,
ICPR94(B:409-413).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Plessis, B., Sicsu, A., Heute, L., Lecolinet, E., Debon, O., and Moreau, J.V.,
A Multi-Classifier Strategy for the Recognition of Handwritten Cursive Words,
ICDAR93(642-645). BibRef 9300

Lecolinet, E.,
A New Model for Context Driven Word Recognition,
SDAIR93(135-xx). BibRef 9300

Aoki, K., Yamaya, Y.,
Recognizer with Learning Mechanism for Hand-Written Script English Words,
ICPR86(690-692). BibRef 8600

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Cursive Script, Text Line Segmentation, Script Line, Segmentation, Text Line Extraction .


Last update:Jul 18, 2014 at 17:05:25