23.2.8 Detection and Correction of Document Skew, and other Distortions

Chapter Contents (Back)
Skew Detection. Skew Correction. Skew Estimation.

Chevillat, P.[Pierre], Schindler, H.R.[Hans R.],
Arrangement for determining the optimum scan angle for printed documents,
US_Patent4,338,588, Jul 6, 1982
WWW Version. BibRef 8207

Baird, H.S.,
The Skew Angle of Printed Documents,
SPSE(40), 1987, pp. 21-24. BibRef 8700

Schlang, A.[Arthur],
Text line bounding system,
US_Patent4,558,461, Dec 10, 1985
WWW Version. Adjust for skew. BibRef 8512

Barski, L.L.[Lori L.],
Skew detector for digital image processing system,
US_Patent4,866,784, Sep 12, 1989
WWW Version. BibRef 8909

Tsujimoto, S.[Shuichi], Asada, H.[Haruo],
Image inclination detecting method and apparatus,
US_Patent4,878,124, Oct 31, 1989
WWW Version. BibRef 8910

Britt, R.H.[Ronald H.],
Optical character reader with skew recognition,
US_Patent4,941,189, Jul 10, 1990
WWW Version. BibRef 9007

Kurose, M.[Morisumi],
Document image processing system,
US_Patent4,953,230, Aug 28, 1990
WWW Version. Skew correction. BibRef 9008

Baird, H.S.[Henry S.],
Apparatus and method for skew control of document images,
US_Patent5,001,766, March 19, 1991.
WWW Version. BibRef 9103

Nakayama, H.[Hiroshi], Kojima, K.[Keiji], Sato, G.[Gen],
Method of segmenting characters in lines which may be skewed, for allowing improved optical character recognition,
US_Patent5,062,141, October 29, 1991.
WWW Version. BibRef 9110

Ikehira, K.[Kimimasa],
Image processing system having skew correcting means,
US_Patent5,093,653, Mar 3, 1992
WWW Version. BibRef 9203

Katsurada, M.[Morihiro], Shimonaga, S.[Sadaaki],
Facsimile device with skew correction and text line direction detection,
US_Patent5,191,438, Mar 2, 1993
WWW Version. BibRef 9303

Yan, H.[Hong],
Skew Correction of Document Images Using Interline Cross-Correlation,
GMIP(55), No. 6, November 1993, pp. 538-543. BibRef 9311

Guerfali, W., Plamondon, R.,
Normalizing and Restoring On-Line Handwriting,
PR(26), No. 3, March 1993, pp. 419-431.
WWW Version. Skew correction. First correct skew then slant. BibRef 9303

Le, D.S., Thoma, G.R., Wechsler, H.,
Automated Page Orientation and Skew Angle Detection for Binary Document Images,
PR(27), No. 10, October 1994, pp. 1325-1344.
WWW Version. BibRef 9410
And: Correction: PR(27), No. 12, December 1994, p. 1823. BibRef

Cullen, J.F.[John F.], Ejiri, K.[Koichi],
Skew detection and correction of a document image representation,
US_Patent5,452,374, Sep 19, 1995
WWW Version. BibRef 9509
And: US_Patent5,854,854, Dec 29, 1998
WWW Version. BibRef

Yu, B.[Bin], Jain, A.K.,
A Robust and Fast Skew Detection Algorithm for Generic Documents,
PR(29), No. 10, October 1996, pp. 1599-1629.
WWW Version. Skew Detection. Hough Transform. BibRef 9610

Pal, U., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
An Improved Document Skew Angle Estimation Technique,
PRL(17), No. 8, July 1 1996, pp. 899-904. 9608

Chaudhuri, B.B., Pal, U.,
Skew Angle Detection of Digitized Indian Script Documents,
PAMI(19), No. 2, February 1997, pp. 182-186.
IEEE DOI Link 9703
Applied to Devnagari and Bangla scripts. Both of these have a "head line" which enable finding digital straight lines which should be horizontal. BibRef

Pal, U., Mitra, M., Chaudhuri, B.B.,
Multi-skew detection of Indian script documents,
IEEE DOI Link 0109

Kawanaka, S.[Seido], Yoshikawa, M.[Mituo], Naito, H.[Hiroyoshi],
Method for detecting inclination of an image of characters,
US_Patent5,546,479, Aug 13, 1996
WWW Version. BibRef 9608

Avanindra, Chaudhuri, S.,
Robust Defection Of Skew In Document Images,
IP(6), No. 2, February 1997, pp. 344-349.
IEEE DOI Link 9703

Gatos, B., Papamarkos, N., Chamzas, C.,
Skew Detection and Text Line-Position Determination in Digitized Documents,
PR(30), No. 9, September 1997, pp. 1505-1519.
WWW Version. 9708

Amin, A., Fischer, S., Parkinson, A.F., Shiu, R.,
Comparative-Study of Skew Detection Algorithms,
JEI(5), No. 4, October 1996, pp. 443-451. 9709

Jiang, H.F., Han, C.C., Fan, K.C.,
A Fast Approach to the Detection and Correction of Skew Documents,
PRL(18), No. 7, July 1997, pp. 675-686. 9711

Jiang, H.F., Han, C.C., Fan, K.C.,
A Fast Approach to Detect and Correct Skew Documents,
ICPR96(III: 742-746).
IEEE DOI Link 9608
(Academia Sinica, ROC) BibRef

Ishitani, Y.[Yasuto],
Document skew detection/control system for printed document images containing a mixture of pure text lines and non-text portions,
US_Patent5,506,918, April 9, 1996.
WWW Version. BibRef 9604

Fast, B.B.[Bruce B.], Allen, D.R.[Dana R.],
OCR image pre-processor for detecting and reducing skew of the image of textual matter of a scanned document,
US_Patent5,594,817, Jan 14, 1997
WWW Version. BibRef 9701

Kanai, J.[Junichi], and Bagdanov, A.D.[Andrew D.],
Projection Profile Based Skew Estimation,
IJDAR(1), No. 1, Spring 1998, pp. xx-yy. BibRef 9800
Earlier: A2, A1:
Projection Profile Based Skew Estimation Algorithm for JPEG Compressed Images,
IEEE DOI Link 9708

Spitz, A.L.[A. Lawrence],
Determination of image skew angle from data including data in compressed form,
US_Patent5,245,676, Sep 14, 1993
WWW Version. BibRef 9309
Skew Angle Determination in Group 4 Compressed Document Images,
SDAIR92(11-25). BibRef

Spitz, A.L.[A. Lawrence],
Correcting for variable skew in document images,
IJDAR(6), No. 3, March 2004, pp. 192-200.
Springer DOI Link 0406
Correcting for Variable Skew,
DAS02(179 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303

Gross, A.D.[Ari D.], Latecki, L.J.[Longin Jan],
Digital geometric methods in document image analysis,
PR(32), No. 3, March 1999, pp. 407-424.
WWW Version. See also Modelling Digital Straight Lines. See also Digitizations Preserving Topological and Differential Geometric-Properties. BibRef 9903

Hu, D.L.[Dong-Liang], Qi, F.H.[Fei-Hu], Liu, J.F.[Jian-Feng],
Recognition of objects with skew distortion based on synergetics,
PRL(20), No. 3, March 1999, pp. 255-265. BibRef 9903

Messelodi, S., Modena, C.M.,
Automatic identification and skew estimation of text lines in real scene images,
PR(32), No. 5, May 1999, pp. 791-810.
WWW Version. BibRef 9905

Farrow, G.S.D., Ireton, M.A., Xydeas, C.S.,
Detecting the skew angle in document images,
SP:IC(6), No. 2, May 1994, pp. 101-114.
WWW Version. BibRef 9405

Safari, R., Narasimhamurthi, N., Shridhar, M., Ahmadi, M.,
Document Registration Using Projective Geometry,
IP(6), No. 9, September 1997, pp. 1337-1341.
IEEE DOI Link 9709

Goto, H.[Hideaki], Aso, H.[Hirotomo],
Extracting Curved Text Lines Using Local Linearity of Text Line,
IJDAR(2), No. 2/3, 1999, pp. 111-119. 9912

Goto, H.[Hideaki], Aso, H.[Hirotomo],
An Algorithm for Reducing Text Line Candidates of Incorrect Orientation,
MVA98(xx-yy). BibRef 9800
A Framework for Detecting and Selecting Text Line Candidates of Correct Orientation,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1074-1076).
IEEE DOI Link 9808

Okun, O.[Oleg], Pietikäinen, M.[Matti], Sauvola, J.[Jaakko],
Document skew estimation without angle range restriction,
IJDAR(2), No. 2/3, 1999, pp. 132-144. 9912

Okun, O.[Oleg], Pietikäinen, M.[Matti], Sauvola, J.[Jaakko],
Robust Document Skew Detection Based on Line Extraction,
SCIA99(Pattern Recognition II). BibRef 9900

Chen, Y.K.[Yi-Kai], Wang, J.F.[Jhing-Fa],
Skew detection and reconstruction based on maximization of variance of transition-counts,
PR(33), No. 2, February 2000, pp. 195-208.
WWW Version. 0001

Kavallieratou, E., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
Skew angle estimation in document processing using Cohen's class distributions,
PRL(20), No. 11-13, November 1999, pp. 1305-1311. 0001

Kavallieratou, E., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
A slant removal algorithm,
PR(33), No. 7, July 2000, pp. 1261-1262.
WWW Version. 0005

Kavallieratou, E., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
Skew angle estimation for printed and handwritten documents using the Wigner-Ville distribution,
IVC(20), No. 11, September 2002, pp. 813-824.
WWW Version. 0209

Kavallieratou, E., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
Slant estimation algorithm for OCR systems,
PR(34), No. 12, December 2001, pp. 2515-2522.
WWW Version. 0110

Liolios, N., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
On the generalization of the form identification and skew detection problem,
PR(35), No. 1, January 2002, pp. 253-264.
WWW Version. 0111

Liolios, N., Fakotakis, N., Kokkinakis, G.,
Improved Document Skew Detection Based on Text Line Connected-component Clustering,
ICIP01(I: 1098-1101).
IEEE DOI Link 0108

Kavallieratou, E., Balcan, D.C., Popa, M.F., Fakotakis, N.,
Handwritten Text Localization in Skewed Documents,
ICIP01(I: 1102-1105).
IEEE DOI Link 0108

Caprari, R.S.[Robert S.],
Algorithm for text page up/down orientation determination,
PRL(21), No. 3, March 2000, pp. 311-317. 0004

Amin, A., Fischer, S.,
A Document Skew Detection Method Using the Hough Transform,
PAA(3), No. 3 2000, pp. 243-253. 0010

Amin, A., Wu, S.,
Robust skew detection in mixed text/graphics documents,
ICDAR05(I: 247-251).
IEEE DOI Link 0508

Slavík, P.[Petr], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Equivalence of Different Methods for Slant and Skew Corrections in Word Recognition Applications,
PAMI(23), No. 3, March 2001, pp. 323-326.
IEEE DOI Link 0103
Correct skew by rotation then slant by shear in horizontal is equivalent to first slant by shear in horizontal then skew by shear in bertical. BibRef

Yin, P.Y.,
Skew detection and block classification of printed documents,
IVC(19), No. 8, May 2001, pp. 567-579.
WWW Version. 0106

Kwag, H.K., Kim, S.H., Jeong, S.H., Lee, G.S.,
Efficient skew estimation and correction algorithm for document images,
IVC(20), No. 1, January 2002, pp. 25-35.
WWW Version. 0201

Das, A.K., Chanda, B.,
A fast algorithm for skew detection of document images using morphology,
IJDAR(4), No. 2 2001, pp. 109-114.
HTML Version. 0201

Au, K.M.[Ka Man], Zhu, Z.X.[Zaio-Xun],
Skew processing of raster scan images,
US_Patent6,490,376, Dec 3, 2002
WWW Version. BibRef 0212

Cao, Y.[Yang], Wang, S.H.[Shu-Hua], Li, H.[Heng],
Skew detection and correction in document images based on straight-line fitting,
PRL(24), No. 12, August 2003, pp. 1871-1879.
WWW Version. 0304

Lu, Y.[Yue], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
A nearest-neighbor chain based approach to skew estimation in document images,
PRL(24), No. 14, October 2003, pp. 2315-2323.
WWW Version. 0307
Improved nearest neighbor based approach to accurate document skew estimation,
IEEE Abstract. 0311

Yuan, B.[Bo], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Fiducial line based skew estimation,
PR(38), No. 12, December 2005, pp. 2333-2350.
WWW Version. 0510
Skew estimation for scanned documents from 'noises',
ICDAR05(I: 277-281).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
Skewscope : the textual document skew detector,
IEEE Abstract. 0311

Yuan, B.[Bo], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Convex hull based skew estimation,
PR(40), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 456-475.
WWW Version. 0611
Component grouping; Page segmentation; Convex hulls; Segregation effect; See also Restoring Warped Document Images through 3D Shape Modeling. BibRef

Navon, Y.[Yaakov],
Skew detection of text in a noisy digitized image,
US_Patent6,687,421, February 3, 2004.
WWW Version. BibRef 0402

Lu, H., Kot, A.C., Shi, Y.Q.,
Distance-Reciprocal Distortion Measure for Binary Document Images,
SPLetters(11), No. 2, February 2004, pp. 228-231.
IEEE Abstract. 0402
Distortion measure for images. BibRef

Cheng, J., Kot, A.C.,
Objective Distortion Measure for Binary Text Image Based on Edge Line Segment Similarity,
IP(16), No. 6, June 2007, pp. 1691-1695.
IEEE DOI Link 0706

Lu, H.P.[Hai-Ping], Wang, J.[Jian], Kot, A.C., Shi, Y.Q.,
An objective distortion measure for binary document images based on human visual perception,
ICPR02(IV: 239-242).
IEEE DOI Link 0211

Brown, M.S.[Michael S.], Seales, W.B.[W. Brent],
Image Restoration of Arbitrarily Warped Documents,
PAMI(26), No. 10, October 2004, pp. 1295-1306.
IEEE Abstract. 0409
Document Restoration Using 3D Shape: A General Deskewing Algorithm for Arbitrarily Warped Documents,
ICCV01(II: 367-374).
IEEE DOI Link 0106
Acquire and flatten the 3-D shape then apply that to the document. Avoid damage to documents in copying. BibRef

Kapoor, R.[Rajiv], Bagai, D.[Deepak], Kamal, T.S.,
A new algorithm for skew detection and correction,
PRL(25), No. 11, August 2004, pp. 1215-1229.
WWW Version. 0409

Tonazzini, A.[Anna], Bedini, L.[Luigi], Salerno, E.[Emanuele],
Independent component analysis for document restoration,
IJDAR(7), No. 1, March 2004, pp. 17-27.
Springer DOI Link 0410

Lu, S.J.[Shi-Jian], Chen, B.M.[Ben M.], Ko, C.C.,
Perspective rectification of document images using fuzzy set and morphological operations,
IVC(23), No. 5, 1 May 2005, pp. 541-553.
WWW Version. 0501
Document image rectification using fuzzy sets and morphological operators,
ICIP04(V: 2877-2880).
IEEE DOI Link 0505

Myers, G.K.[Gregory K.], Bolles, R.C.[Robert C.], Luong, Q.T.[Quang-Tuan], Herson, J.A.[James A.], Aradhye, H.B.[Hrishikesh B.],
Rectification and recognition of text in 3-D scenes,
IJDAR(7), No. 2-3, July 2005, pp. 147-158.
Springer DOI Link 0508

Aradhye, H.B.[Hrishikesh B.],
A generic method for determining up/down orientation of text in Roman and non-Roman scripts,
PR(38), No. 11, November 2005, pp. 2114-2131.
WWW Version. 0509
A generic method for determining the up/down orientation of text in Roman and non-Roman scripts,
ICDAR05(I: 187-191).
IEEE DOI Link 0508

Yamaguchi, T.[Takuma], Maruyama, M.[Minoru], Miyao, H.[Hidetoshi], Nakano, Y.[Yasuaki],
Digit recognition in a natural scene with skew and slant normalization,
IJDAR(7), No. 2-3, July 2005, pp. 168-177.
Springer DOI Link 0508

Park, J.H., Jang, I.H., Kim, N.C.,
Skew correction of business card images acquired in PDA,
VISP(152), No. 6, December 2005, pp. 668-676.
DOI Link 0512

Shin, K.T., Jang, I.H., Kim, N.C.,
Block adaptive binarisation of ill-conditioned business card images acquired in a PDA using a modified quadratic filter,
IET-IPR(1), No. 1, March 2007, pp. 56-66.
DOI Link 0905

Aradhya, V.N.M.[V. N. Manjunath], Hemantha Kumar, G., Shivakumara, P.,
A Novel Skew Detection Technique for Binary Document Images Based on Character Centroid And Lra,
GVIP(05), No. V9, 2005, pp. xx-yy.
HTML Version. BibRef 0500

Shivakumara, P., Hemantha Kumar, G.,
A novel boundary growing approach for accurate skew estimation of binary document images,
PRL(27), No. 7, May 2006, pp. 791-801.
WWW Version. 0604
Boundary growing; Linear regression analysis BibRef

Shivakumara, P., Hemantha Kumar, G., Varsha, H.S., Rekha, S., Rashmi Nayaka, M.R.,
A new moments based skew estimation technique using pixels in the word for binary document images,
ICDAR05(I: 151-156).
IEEE DOI Link 0508

Vasudev, T., Hemanth Kumar, G., Nagabhushan, P.,
Transformation of arc-form-text to linear-form-text suitable for OCR,
PRL(28), No. 16, December 2007, pp. 2343-2351.
WWW Version. 0711
Artistic-text; Arc-form-text; Linear-form-text; Tilt deformation; OCR More than skew. BibRef

Brown, M.S., Tsoi, Y.C.[Yau-Chat],
Geometric and Shading Correction for Images of Printed Materials Using Boundary,
IP(15), No. 6, June 2006, pp. 1544-1554.
IEEE DOI Link 0606
Earlier: A2, A1:
Geometric and shading correction for images of printed materials a unified approach using boundary,
CVPR04(I: 240-246).
IEEE DOI Link 0408

Brown, M.S.[Michael S.], Tsoi, Y.C.[Yau-Chat],
Distortion Removal For Camera-imaged Print Materials Using Boundary Interpolation,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 311-328. 0504

Tsoi, Y.C.[Yau-Chat], Brown, M.S.[Michael S.],
Multi-View Document Rectification using Boundary,
IEEE DOI Link 0706

Hutchison, L.A.D.[Luke A. D.], Barrett, W.A.[William A.],
Fourier-Mellin registration of line-delineated tabular document images,
IJDAR(8), No. 2-3, June 2006, pp. 87-110.
Springer DOI Link 0606
Fast registration of tabular document images using the Fourier-Mellin transform,
IEEE DOI Link 0404

Chou, C.H.[Chien-Hsing], Chu, S.Y.[Shih-Yu], Chang, F.[Fu],
Estimation of skew angles for scanned documents based on piecewise covering by parallelograms,
PR(40), No. 2, February 2007, pp. 443-455.
WWW Version. 0611
Piecewise covering; Skew angle; Skew angle estimation BibRef

Li, S.T.[Shu-Tao], Shen, Q.H.[Qing-Hua], Sun, J.[Jun],
Skew detection using wavelet decomposition and projection profile analysis,
PRL(28), No. 5, 1 April 2007, pp. 555-562.
WWW Version. 0703
Skew detection; Document analysis; Projection profile analysis; Wavelet transform BibRef

Basu, S., Chaudhuri, C., Kundu, M., Nasipuri, M., Basu, D.K.,
Text line extraction from multi-skewed handwritten documents,
PR(40), No. 6, June 2007, pp. 1825-1839.
WWW Version. 0704
OCR; Multi-skewed documents; Text line extraction; Connected component labelling; Skew angle detection; Touching line segmentation BibRef

Khandelwal, A.[Abhishek], Choudhury, P.[Pritha], Sarkar, R.[Ram], Basu, S.[Subhadip], Nasipuri, M.[Mita], Das, N.[Nibaran],
Text Line Segmentation for Unconstrained Handwritten Document Images Using Neighborhood Connected Component Analysis,
Springer DOI Link 0912

Mollah, A.F.[Ayatullah Faruk], Basu, S.[Subhadip], Nasipuri, M.[Mita],
Handheld Device-Based Character Recognition System for Camera Captured Images,
IJIG(13), No. 04, 2013, pp. 1350016.
DOI Link 1404

Wiart, A.[Alain], Paquet, T.[Thierry], Heutte, L.[Laurent],
Detection and recognition of erasures in on-line captured paper forms,
PRL(28), No. 10, 15 July 2007, pp. 1263-1270.
WWW Version. 0706
Erasure detection; Erasure characterization; On-line recognition; Pen based applications; Forms BibRef

Brown, M.S.[Michael S.], Sun, M.[Mingxuan], Yang, R.G.[Rui-Gang], Yun, L.[Lin], Seales, W.B.[W. Brent],
Restoring 2D Content from Distorted Documents,
PAMI(29), No. 11, November 2007, pp. 1904-1916.
IEEE DOI Link 0711

Landon, G.V.[George V.], Yun, L.[Lin], Seales, W.B.[W. Brent],
Towards Automatic Photometric Correction of Casually Illuminated Documents,
IEEE DOI Link 0706

Sun, M.X.[Ming-Xuan], Yang, R.G.[Rui-Gang], Yun, L.[Lin], Landon, G.V.[George V.], Seales, W.B.[W. Brent], Brown, M.S.[Michael S.],
Geometric and Photometric Restoration of Distorted Documents,
ICCV05(II: 1117-1123).
IEEE DOI Link 0510

Brown, M.S.[Michael S.], Pisula, C.J.[Charles J.],
Conformal Deskewing of Non-Planar Documents,
CVPR05(I: 998-1004).
IEEE DOI Link 0507

Yun, L.[Lin], Seales, W.B.[W. Brent],
Opaque Document Imaging: Building Images of Inaccessible Texts,
ICCV05(I: 662-669).
IEEE DOI Link 0510
An image of a rolled document from penetrating scans. From high-res CT scans. BibRef

Manjunath, A.V.N., Hemantha, K.G., Noushath, S.,
Document Skew Detection: A Novel Approach,
IJIG(8), No. 1, January 2008, pp. 47-59. 0801

Amin, A.[Adnan], Wu, S.[Sue],
A Robust System For Thresholding And Skew Detection In Mixed Text/graphics Documents,
IJIG(5), No. 2, April 2005, pp. 247-265. 0504

Liu, H.[Hong], Wu, Q.[Qi], Zha, H.B.[Hong-Bin], Liu, X.P.[Xue-Ping],
Skew detection for complex document images using robust borderlines in both text and non-text regions,
PRL(29), No. 13, 1 October 2008, pp. 1893-1900.
WWW Version. 0804
Document analysis; Skew detection; Robust borderline; Linear filter; Optimization BibRef

Singh, C.[Chandan], Bhatia, N.[Nitin], Kaur, A.[Amandeep],
Hough transform based fast skew detection and accurate skew correction methods,
PR(41), No. 12, December 2008, pp. 3528-3546.
WWW Version. 0810
Skew detection; Skew correction; Hough transform; Rotation BibRef

Shafait, F.[Faisal], van Beusekom, J.[Joost], Keysers, D.[Daniel], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Document cleanup using page frame detection,
IJDAR(11), No. 2, November 2008, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 0810
Page Frame Detection for Marginal Noise Removal from Scanned Documents,
Springer DOI Link 0706
See also Text-line examination for document forgery detection. BibRef

Bukhari, S.S.[Syed Saqib], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Border Noise Removal of Camera-Captured Document Images Using Page Frame Detection,
Springer DOI Link 1204
See also Image Based Performance Evaluation Method for Page Dewarping Algorithms Using SIFT Features, An. BibRef

van Beusekom, J.[Joost], Shafait, F.[Faisal],
Distortion Measurement for Automatic Document Verification,
IEEE DOI Link 1111

Rangoni, Y.[Yves], Shafait, F.[Faisal], van Beusekom, J.[Joost], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Recognition Driven Page Orientation Detection,
IEEE DOI Link 0911

van Beusekom, J.[Joost], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Combined orientation and skew detection using geometric text-line modeling,
IJDAR(13), No. 2, June 2010, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 1007
See also Textline information extraction from grayscale camera-captured document images. BibRef

van Beusekom, J.[Joost], Shafait, F.[Faisal], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Image-Matching for Revision Detection in Printed Historical Documents,
Springer DOI Link 0709

van Beusekom, J., Keysers, D., Shafait, F., Breuel, T.M.,
Distance Measures for Layout-Based Document Image Retrieval,
IEEE DOI Link 0604

Lampert, C.H.[Christoph H.], Braun, T.[Tim], Ulges, A.[Adrian], Keysers, D.[Daniel], Breuel, T.M.[Thomas M.],
Oblivious Document Capture and Real-Time Retrieval,
PDF Version. Skew and curl removal. BibRef 0500

Dey, P.[Prasenjit], Noushath, S.,
e-PCP: A robust skew detection method for scanned document images,
PR(43), No. 3, March 2010, pp. 937-948.
Elsevier DOI Link 1001
Skew detection; Piece-wise coverings (PCP); Confidence measure; Text-flow orientation detection; Enhanced-PCP; Skew correction BibRef

Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Recognizing Planar Symbols with Severe Perspective Deformation,
PAMI(32), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 755-762.
IEEE DOI Link 1003
From real scenes. BAsed on Cross-Ratio spectrum descriptor. BibRef

Zhou, P.[Peng], Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Character Recognition under Severe Perspective Distortion,
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Earlier: A2, A3, Only: ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812

Zhang, Z.[Zheng], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Straightening warped text lines using polynomial regression,
ICIP02(III: 977-980).
IEEE DOI Link 0210

Loo, P.K.[Poh Kok], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Word and Sentence Extraction Using Irregular Pyramid,
DAS02(307 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303

Tonazzini, A., Gerace, I., Martinelli, F.,
Multichannel Blind Separation and Deconvolution of Images for Document Analysis,
IP(19), No. 4, April 2010, pp. 912-925.
IEEE DOI Link 1003

Tonazzini, A., Gerace, I., Cricco, F.,
Joint blind separation and restoration of mixed degraded images for document analysis,
ICIP04(I: 311-314).
IEEE DOI Link 0505

Meng, G.F.[Gao-Feng], Pan, C.H.[Chun-Hong], Zheng, N.N.[Nan-Ning], Sun, C.[Chen],
Skew Estimation of Document Images Using Bagging,
IP(19), No. 7, July 2010, pp. 1837-1846.
IEEE DOI Link 1007

Mascaro, A.A.[Angelica A.], Cavalcanti, G.D.C.[George D.C.], Mello, C.A.B.[Carlos A.B.],
Fast and robust skew estimation of scanned documents through background area information,
PRL(31), No. 11, 1 August 2010, pp. 1403-1411.
Elsevier DOI Link 1008
Skew angle estimation; Document analysis; Noisy documents BibRef

Mello, C.A.B.[Carlos A. B.], Sánchez, Á.[Ángel], Cavalcanti, G.D.C.[George D. C.],
Multiple Line Skew Estimation of Handwritten Images of Documents Based on a Visual Perception Approach,
CAIP11(II: 138-145).
Springer DOI Link 1109

Fan, H.J.[Hui-Jie], Zhu, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tang, Y.D.[Yan-Dong],
Skew detection in document images based on rectangular active contour,
IJDAR(13), No. 4, December 2010, pp. 261-269.
WWW Version. 1101

Stamatopoulos, N., Gatos, B., Pratikakis, I.E., Perantonis, S.J.,
Goal-Oriented Rectification of Camera-Based Document Images,
IP(20), No. 4, April 2011, pp. 910-920.
IEEE DOI Link 1103

Guan, Y.P.,
Fast and robust skew estimation in document images through bilinear filtering model,
IET-IPR(6), No. 6, 2012, pp. 761-769.
DOI Link 1210

Papandreou, A., Gatos, B.,
Slant estimation and core-region detection for handwritten Latin words,
PRL(35), No. 1, 2014, pp. 16-22.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
A Coarse to Fine Skew Estimation Technique for Handwritten Words,
IEEE DOI Link 1312
handwritten character recognition Word slant estimation BibRef

Papandreou, A., Gatos, B., Louloudis, G., Stamatopoulos, N.,
ICDAR 2013 Document Image Skew Estimation Contest (DISEC 2013),
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Singh, B.[Brij], Mittal, A.[Ankush], Ghosh, D.[Debashis],
A novel method for straightening curved text-lines in stylistic documents,
JIVP(2014), No. 1, 2014, pp. 36.
DOI Link 1407

Papandreou, A., Gatos, B., Perantonis, S.J., Gerardis, I.,
Efficient skew detection of printed document images based on novel combination of enhanced profiles,
IJDAR(17), No. 4, December 2014, pp. 433-454.
Springer DOI Link 1411

Simon, C.[Christian], Pao, W.[Williem], Choe, J.[Jihwan], Yun, I.D.[Il Dong], Park, I.K.[In Kyu],
Correcting Photometric Distortion of Document Images on a Smartphone,
IEEE DOI Link 1409

Pao, W.[Williem], Simon, C.[Christian], Cho, S.[Sungdae], Park, I.K.[In Kyu],
Fast and Robust Perspective Rectification of Document Images on a Smartphone,
IEEE DOI Link 1409

Meng, G.F.[Gao-Feng], Wang, Y.[Ying], Qu, S.[Shenquan], Xiang, S.M.[Shi-Ming], Pan, C.H.[Chun-Hong],
Active Flattening of Curved Document Images via Two Structured Beams,
IEEE DOI Link 1409
developable surface interpolation BibRef

Cho, H.[Hojin], Wang, J.[Jue], Lee, S.Y.[Seung-Yong],
Text Image Deblurring Using Text-Specific Properties,
ECCV12(V: 524-537).
Springer DOI Link 1210

Vo, D.T.[Dung Trung], Lertrattanapanich, S.[Surapong], Kim, Y.T.[Yeong-Taeg],
Automatic video deshearing for skew sequences capturedby rolling shutter cameras,
IEEE DOI Link 1201

Felhi, M.[Mehdi], Bonnier, N.[Nicolas], Tabbone, S.[Salvatore],
A robust skew detection method based on Maximum Gradient Difference and R-signature,
IEEE DOI Link 1201

Pratihar, S.[Sanjoy], Bhowmick, P.[Partha],
Skew correction of engineering drawings by digital-geometric analysis of Farey ranks,
IEEE DOI Link 1112

Gao, Y.P.[Yu-Peng], Li, Y.M.[Yi-Ming], Hu, Z.Y.[Zhong-Yi],
Skewed text correction based on the improved Hough transform,
IEEE DOI Link 1112

Epshtein, B.[Boris],
Determining Document Skew Using Inter-line Spaces,
IEEE DOI Link 1111

Papandreou, A., Gatos, B.,
A Novel Skew Detection Technique Based on Vertical Projections,
IEEE DOI Link 1111

Alaei, A.[Alireza], Pal, U.[Umapada], Nagabhushan, P., Kimura, F.[Fumitaka],
A Painting Based Technique for Skew Estimation of Scanned Documents,
IEEE DOI Link 1111

Alaei, A.[Alireza], Nagabhushan, P., Pal, U.[Umapada],
A New Text-Line Alignment Approach Based on Piece-Wise Painting Algorithm for Handwritten Documents,
IEEE DOI Link 1111

Rashid, A.[Adnan], Prati, A.[Andrea], Cucchiara, R.[Rita],
A real-time embedded solution for skew correction in banknote analysis,
IEEE DOI Link 1106

Suzuki, S.[Shohei], Kato, K.[Kunihito], Yamamoto, K.[Kazuhiko],
A consideration of effective feature extraction method for Nail Camera System,
IEEE DOI Link 1102
mobile camera reading system. Attach small camera to finger tip. User scans the line. BibRef

Banerjee, S., Noushath, S., Parikh, P., Ramachandrula, S., Kuchibhotla, A., Sharma, A.,
Real-time embedded skew detection and frame removal,
IEEE DOI Link 1009

Konya, I.V.[Iuliu Vasile], Eickeler, S.[Stefan], Seibert, C.[Christoph],
Fast Seamless Skew and Orientation Detection in Document Images,
IEEE DOI Link 1008

Park, J.[Junhee], Lee, B.U.[Byung-Uk],
Metric Rectification to Estimate the Aspect Ratio of Camera-Captured Document Images,
ISVC09(II: 283-292).
Springer DOI Link 0911

Sadri, J.[Javad], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
A New Approach for Skew Correction of Documents Based on Particle Swarm Optimization,
IEEE DOI Link 0907

Haji, M.M.[M. Mehdi], Bui, T.D.[Tien D.], Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.],
Simultaneous Document Margin Removal and Skew Correction Based on Corner Detection in Projection Profiles,
Springer DOI Link 0909

Zaremba, R.[Ryan], Wirth, M.[Michael],
Suppression of Foxing in Historical Books Using Inpainting,
Springer DOI Link 0907

Lins, R.D.[Rafael Dueire],
A Taxonomy for Noise in Images of Paper Documents: The Physical Noises,
Springer DOI Link 0907

Arvind, K.R., Kumar, J.[Jayant], Ramakrishnan, A.G.,
Entropy Based Skew Correction of Document Images,
Springer DOI Link 0712

Aradhya, V.N.M.[V. N. Manjunath], Rao, A.[Ashok], Kumar, G.H.[G. Hemantha],
Language Independent Skew Estimation Technique Based on Gaussian Mixture Models: A Case Study on South Indian Scripts,
Springer DOI Link 0712

Yin, X.C., Sun, J., Naoi, S., Fujimoto, K., Fujii, Y., Kurokawa, K., Takebe, H.,
A Multi-Stage Strategy to Perspective Rectification for Mobile Phone Camera-Based Document Images,
IEEE DOI Link 0709

Lu, S.J., Wang, J., Tan, C.L.,
Fast and Accurate Detection of Document Skew and Orientation,
IEEE DOI Link 0709

Egozi, A., Dinstein, I., Chapran, J., Fairhurst, M.C.,
An EM Based Algorithm for Skew Detection,
IEEE DOI Link 0709

Makridis, M.[Michael], Nikolaou, N.[Nikos], Papamarkos, N.[Nikos],
A New Technique for Global and Local Skew Correction in Binary Documents,
Springer DOI Link 0708

Xie, F.Y.[Feng-Ying], Jiang, Z.G.[Zhi-Guo], Wang, L.[Lei],
Skew Detection Algorithm for Form Document Based on Elongate Feature,
Springer DOI Link 0708

Dhandra, B.V., Malemath, V.S., Hangarge, M.[Mallikarjun], Hegadi, R.[Ravindra],
Skew Detection in Binary Image Documents Based on Image Dilation and Region labeling Approach,
ICPR06(II: 954-957).
IEEE DOI Link 0609

Liu, L.[Lin], Zhang, S.Y.[San-Yuan], Zhang, Y.[Yin], Ye, X.Z.[Xiu-Zi],
Slant Correction of Vehicle License Plate Image,
Springer DOI Link 0509

Dong, J.X.[Jian-Xiong], Dominique, P., Krzyzak, A., Suen, C.Y.,
Cursive word skew/slant corrections based on Radon transform,
ICDAR05(I: 478-483).
IEEE DOI Link 0508

Xi, D.H.[Di-Hua], Kamel, M.[Mohamed], Lee, S.W.[Seong-Whan],
Skew Estimation and Correction for Form Documents Using Wavelet Decomposition,
Springer DOI Link 0509

Lins, R.D.[Rafael Dueire], Ávila, B.T.[Bruno Tenório], de Araújo Formiga, A.[Andrei],
BigBatch: An Environment for Processing Monochromatic Documents,
ICIAR06(II: 886-896).
Springer DOI Link 0610
See also Efficient Removal of Noisy Borders of Monochromatic Documents. BibRef

Lins, R.D.[Rafael Dueire], Ávila, B.T.[Bruno Tenório],
A New Algorithm for Skew Detection in Images of Documents,
ICIAR04(II: 234-240).
WWW Version. 0409

Pastor, M.[Moisés], Toselli, A.[Alejandro], Vidal, E.[Enrique],
Projection Profile Based Algorithm for Slant Removal,
ICIAR04(II: 183-190).
WWW Version. 0409

Yamashita, A., Kawarago, A., Kaneko, T., Miura, K.T.,
Shape reconstruction and image restoration for non-flat surfaces of documents with a stereo vision system,
ICPR04(I: 482-485).
IEEE DOI Link 0409

Cao, H.[Huaigu], Ding, X.Q.[Xiao-Qing], Liu, C.S.[Chang-Song],
A cylindrical surface model to rectify the bound document image,
IEEE DOI Link 0311
Rectifying the bound document image captured by the camera: A model based approach,
IEEE Abstract. 0311
Model as cylinder, map to a plane. BibRef

Zhu, X.Y.[Xiao-Yan], Yin, X.X.[Xiao-Xin],
A new textual/non-textual classifier for document skew correction,
ICPR02(I: 480-482).
IEEE DOI Link 0211

Shi, Z.X.[Zhi-Xin], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Line separation for complex document images using fuzzy runlength,
IEEE DOI Link 0404
Skew detection for complex document images using fuzzy runlength,
IEEE Abstract. 0311

Hase, H., Yoneda, M., Shinokawa, T., Suen, C.Y.,
Alignment of free layout color texts for character recognition,
IEEE DOI Link 0109

Pilu, M.[Maurizio],
Extraction of Illusory Linear Clues in Perspectively Skewed Documents,
IEEE DOI Link 0110

Tao, Y., Ioerger, T., Tang, Y.,
Extraction of Rotation Invariant Signature Based on Fractal Geometry,
ICIP01(I: 1090-1093).
IEEE DOI Link 0108

Lavialle, O., Molines, X., Angella, F., Baylou, P.,
Active Contours Network to Straighten Distorted Text Lines,
ICIP01(III: 748-751).
IEEE DOI Link 0108

Uchida, S., Taira, E., Sakoe, H.,
Nonuniform slant correction using dynamic programming,
IEEE DOI Link 0109

Mahata, K., Ramakrishnan, A.,
A Novel Scheme for Image Rotation for Document Processing,
ICIP00(Vol II: 594-596).
IEEE DOI Link 0008

Safari, R., Narasimhamurthi, N., Shridhar, M.[Mal], Ahmadi, M.,
Extraction of Handwritten Information in Geometrically Distorted Documents,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1298-1300).
IEEE DOI Link 9808

Peake, G.S., and Tan, T.N.,
A General Algorithm for Document Skew Angle Estimation,
ICIP97(II: 230-233).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9700

Tang, Y.Y., Yang, L., Liu, J.,
Quadratic Spline Wavelet Approach to Automatic Extraction of Baselines from Document Images,
IEEE DOI Link 9708

Sun, C., Si, D.,
Skew and Slant Correction for Document Images Using Gradient Direction,
IEEE DOI Link 9708

Ben Hadj Ali, M.,
An Object/Segment Oriented Skew-Correction Technique for Document Images,
IEEE DOI Link 9708

Antonacopoulos, A.,
Local Skew Angle Estimation from Background Space in Text Regions,
IEEE DOI Link 9708

Okun, O.[Oleg],
Accurate Method of Document Skew Estimation by PCA,
HTML Version. 9705

Cho, S.I.[Seong Ik], Saito, H.[Hideo], Ozawa, S.J.[Shin-Ji],
A divide-and-conquer strategy in recovering shape of book surface from shading,
CIAP97(II: 262-269).
WWW Version. 9709

del Ninno, E., Nicchiotti, G., Ottaviani, E.,
A general and flexible deskewing method based on generalized projection,
CIAP97(II: 632-638).
WWW Version. 9709

Ittner, D.,
Automatic Inference of Textline Orientation,
SDAIR92(123-133). BibRef 9200

Weng, Y.[Yun], Zhu, Q.M.[Qiu-Ming],
Nonlinear Shape Restoration for Document Images,
IEEE DOI Link Flatten a curved page. BibRef 9600

Min, Y., Cho, S., Lee, Y.,
A Data Reduction Method for Efficient Document Skew Estimation Based on Hough Transformation,
ICPR96(III: 732-736).
IEEE DOI Link 9608
(Yonsei Univ., KOR) BibRef

Chen, S.[Su], Haralick, R.M.,
An automatic algorithm for text skew estimation in document images using recursive morphological transforms,
ICIP94(I: 139-143).
IEEE DOI Link 9411

Liu, J., Lee, C.M., Shu, R.B.,
An efficient method for the skew normalization of a document image,
IEEE DOI Link 9208

Nakano, Y., Shima, Y., Fujisawa, H., Higashino, J., Fujinawa, M.,
An algorithm for the skew normalization of document image,
ICPR90(II: 8-13).
IEEE DOI Link 9208

Hinds, S.C., Fisher, J.L., d'Amato, D.P.,
A Document Skew Detection Method Using Run-Length Encoding and the Hough Transform,
ICPR90(I: 464-468).
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9000
And: A2, A1, A3:
A Rule-Based System for Document Image Segmentation,
ICPR90(I: 567-572).
IEEE DOI Link Application, Document Analysis. Hough. 14 rules about characteristics of document components. BibRef

Postl, W.,
Detection of Linear Oblique Structures and Skew Scan in Digitized Documents,
ICPR86(687-689). BibRef 8600

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Enhancement, Restoration of Document Images, Curls .

Last update:Nov 25, 2014 at 19:37:27