23.2.9 Word Level Recognition, Language Models

Chapter Contents (Back)
Word Recognition. Word Level Recognition. Word Spotting. For more related to cursive word level analysis: See also Cursive Script, Word Level Recognition, Word Spotting, Language Model. See also Arabic Recognition, Word Level, Word Spotting.

Riseman, E.M., Ehrich, R.W.,
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Hull, J.J.,
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Hull, J.J.,
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Kashyap, R.L., Oommen, B.J.,
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PRL(2), 1984, pp. 147-154. BibRef 8400

Takahashi, H., Itoh, N., Amano, T., Yamashita, A.,
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PR(23), No. 3-4, 1990, pp. 363-377.
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Wells, C.J., Evett, L.J., Whitby, P.E., Whitrow, R.J.,
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de Luca, P.G., Gisotti, A.,
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Kundu, A.[Amlan], He, Y.[Yang],
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PR(24), No. 7, 1991, pp. 603-608.
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Chen, W.T.[Wen-Tsong], Gader, P.D.[Paul D.], Shi, H.C.[Hong-Chi],
Lexicon-Driven Handwritten Word Recognition Using Optimal Linear Combinations of Order Statistics,
PAMI(21), No. 1, January 1999, pp. 77-82.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9901

Spitz, A.L.[A. Lawrence],
Shape-based word recognition,
IJDAR(1), No. 4 1999, pp. 178-190. BibRef 9900

Taghva, K.[Kazem], Gilbreth, J.[Jeff],
Recognizing acronyms and their definitions,
IJDAR(1), No. 4 1999, pp. 191-198. BibRef 9900

Ho, T.K.[Tin Kam],
Stop Word Location and Identification for Adaptive Text Recognition,
IJDAR(3), No. 1, 2000, pp. 16-26. 0008
BibRef
Earlier:
Bootstrapping Text Recognition from Stop Words,
ICPR98(Vol I: 605-609).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Favata, J.T.[John T.],
Offline General Handwritten Word Recognition Using an Approximate BEAM Matching Algorithm,
PAMI(23), No. 9, September 2001, pp. 1009-1021.
IEEE DOI Link 0110
BibRef
Earlier:
General Word Recognition Using Approximate Segment-String Matching,
ICDAR97(92-96).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
Handwritten, isolated words. Segment then recognize. Guided by a lexicon. Apply to addresses. BibRef

Favata, J.T.[John T.],
Character Model Word Recognition,
FHR96(437-440). BibRef 9600

Park, J.[Jaehwa], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Use of adaptive segmentation in handwritten phrase recognition,
PR(35), No. 1, January 2002, pp. 245-252.
WWW Version. 0111
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Park, J.[Jaehwa], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Using Lexical Similarity in Handwritten Word Recognition,
CVPR00(II: 290-295).
IEEE DOI Link 0005
Handwriting BibRef

Park, J.[Jaehwa],
An Adaptive Approach to Offline Handwritten Word Recognition,
PAMI(24), No. 7, July 2002, pp. 920-931.
IEEE Abstract. 0207
Select features of each word and use constraints from lexicon. Address components of mail. BibRef

Park, J.[Jaehwa], Kwon, Y.B.[Young-Bin],
An Efficient Representation of Hand Sketch Graphic Messages Using Recursive Bezier Curve Approximation,
ICIAR04(I: 392-399).
WWW Version. 0409
BibRef

Cho, B.J.[Beom-Joon], Kim, J.H.[Jin H.],
Print keyword spotting with dynamically synthesized pseudo 2D HMMs,
PRL(25), No. 9, 2 July 2004, pp. 999-1011.
WWW Version. 0407
BibRef

Perraud, F.[Freddy], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Morin, E.[Emmanuel], Lallican, P.M.[Pierre-Michel],
Statistical Language Models for On-Line Handwriting Recognition,
IEICE(E88-D), No. 8, August 2005, pp. 1807-1814.
DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Saldarriaga, S.P.[Sebastián Peńa], Viard-Gaudin, C.[Christian], Morin, E.[Emmanuel],
Impact of online handwriting recognition performance on text categorization,
IJDAR(13), No. 2, June 2010, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 1007
BibRef

Saldarriaga, S.P.[Sebastián Pena], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed],
Indexing On-line Handwritten Texts Using Word Confusion Networks,
ICDAR11(197-201).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Prochasson, E., Viard-Gaudin, C., Morin, E.,
Language Models for Handwritten Short Message Services,
ICDAR07(83-87).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Schumann, E.T.[Eduardo Torres], Schulz, K.U.[Klaus U.],
Stable methods for recognizing acronym-expansion pairs: From rule sets to hidden Markov models,
IJDAR(8), No. 1, April 2006, pp. 11-26.
Springer DOI Link 0605
BibRef

Marinai, S.[Simone], Marino, E.[Emanuele], Soda, G.[Giovanni],
Font Adaptive Word Indexing of Modern Printed Documents,
PAMI(28), No. 8, August 2006, pp. 1187-1199.
IEEE DOI Link 0606
BibRef
Earlier:
Indexing and retrieval of words in old documents,
ICDAR03(223-227).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
Word level indexing applied where OCR is difficult. BibRef

Marinai, S.[Simone], Marino, E.[Emanuele], Soda, G.[Giovanni],
Transformation invariant SOM clustering in Document Image Analysis,
CIAP07(185-190).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Marinai, S.[Simone], Faini, S.[Stefano], Marino, E.[Emanuele], Soda, G.[Giovanni],
Efficient Word Retrieval by Means of SOM Clustering and PCA,
DAS06(336-347).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Tjhi, W.C.[William-Chandra], Chen, L.H.[Li-Hui],
A partitioning based algorithm to fuzzy co-cluster documents and words,
PRL(27), No. 3, February 2006, pp. 151-159.
WWW Version. 0512
BibRef

van der Zant, T.[Tijn], Schomaker, L.R.B.[Lambert R.B.], Haak, K.[Koen],
Handwritten-Word Spotting Using Biologically Inspired Features,
PAMI(30), No. 11, November 2008, pp. 1945-1957.
IEEE DOI Link 0809
BibRef

Rodriguez-Serrano, J.A.[Jose A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
Handwritten word-spotting using hidden Markov models and universal vocabularies,
PR(42), No. 9, September 2009, pp. 2106-2116.
Elsevier DOI Link 0905
BibRef
And: A2, A1:
Fisher Kernels for Handwritten Word-spotting,
ICDAR09(106-110).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Word-spotting; Hidden Markov model; Score normalization; Universal vocabulary; Handwriting recognition BibRef

Rodriguez-Serrano, J.A.[Jose A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
Label embedding for text recognition,
BMVC13(xx-yy).
DOI Link 1402
BibRef

Perronnin, F.[Florent], Liu, Y.[Yan], Renders, J.M.[Jean-Michel],
A family of contextual measures of similarity between distributions with application to image retrieval,
CVPR09(2358-2365).
IEEE DOI Link 0906
BibRef

Rodríguez-Serrano, J.A.[José A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
Synthesizing queries for handwritten word image retrieval,
PR(45), No. 9, September 2012, pp. 3270-3276.
Elsevier DOI Link 1206
BibRef
Earlier:
Handwritten Word Image Retrieval with Synthesized Typed Queries,
ICDAR09(351-355).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Data synthesis; Word-spotting; Handwriting recognition; Hidden Markov models BibRef

Rodríguez-Serrano, J.A.[José A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
A Model-Based Sequence Similarity with Application to Handwritten Word Spotting,
PAMI(34), No. 11, November 2012, pp. 2108-2120.
IEEE DOI Link 1209
Similarity measure between vector sequences. HMM models. Tested on various datasets, including handwritten Arabic. BibRef

Rodriguez-Serrano, J.A.[Jose A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent], Sanchez, G.[Gemma], Llados, J.[Josep],
Unsupervised writer adaptation of whole-word HMMs with application to word-spotting,
PRL(31), No. 8, 1 June 2010, pp. 742-749.
Elsevier DOI Link 1004
BibRef
Earlier:
Unsupervised writer style adaptation for handwritten word spotting,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
Word-spotting; Handwriting recognition; Writer adaptation; Hidden Markov model; Document analysis BibRef

Rodriguez-Serrano, J.A.[Jose A.], Perronnin, F.[Florent], Llados, J.[Josep], Sanchez, G.[Gemma],
A similarity measure between vector sequences with application to handwritten word image retrieval,
CVPR09(1722-1729).
IEEE DOI Link 0906
BibRef

Liu, Y.[Yan], Perronnin, F.[Florent],
A similarity measure between unordered vector sets with application to image categorization,
CVPR08(1-8).
IEEE DOI Link 0806
similarity between sets. BibRef

Llados, J., Sanchez, G.,
Indexing Historical Documents by Word Shape Signatures,
ICDAR07(362-366).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Lladós, J.[Josep], Pratim-Roy, P.[Partha], Rodríguez, J.A.[José A.], Sánchez, G.[Gemma],
Word Spotting in Archive Documents Using Shape Contexts,
IbPRIA07(II: 290-297).
Springer DOI Link 0706
BibRef

Weinman, J.J.[Jerod J.], Learned-Miller, E.G.[Erik G.], Hanson, A.R.[Allen R.],
Scene Text Recognition Using Similarity and a Lexicon with Sparse Belief Propagation,
PAMI(31), No. 10, October 2009, pp. 1733-1746.
IEEE DOI Link 0909
BibRef
Earlier:
A discriminative semi-Markov model for robust scene text recognition,
ICPR08(1-5).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef
Earlier:
Fast Lexicon-Based Scene Text Recognition with Sparse Belief Propagation,
ICDAR07(979-983).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Smith, D.L.[David L.], Field, J.[Jacqueline], Learned-Miller, E.G.[Erik G.],
Enforcing similarity constraints with integer programming for better scene text recognition,
CVPR11(73-80).
IEEE DOI Link 1106
BibRef

Weinman, J.J.[Jerod J.],
Typographical Features for Scene Text Recognition,
ICPR10(3987-3990).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Weinman, J.J.[Jerod J.], Butler, Z., Knoll, D., Feild, J.,
Toward Integrated Scene Text Reading,
PAMI(36), No. 2, February 2014, pp. 375-387.
IEEE DOI Link 1402
document image processing BibRef

Kessentini, Y.[Yousri], Paquet, T.[Thierry], Ben Hamadou, A.[Abdel_Majid],
Off-line handwritten word recognition using multi-stream hidden Markov models,
PRL(31), No. 1, 1 January 2010, pp. 60-70.
Elsevier DOI Link 1001
BibRef
Earlier:
A Multi-stream Approach to Off-Line Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR07(317-321).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
Off-line handwriting recognition; Hidden Markov models; Latin script; Arabic script; Multi-stream; Information combination BibRef

Kessentini, Y.[Yousri], Paquet, T.[Thierry], Guermazi, A.[Ahmed],
An Optimized Multi-stream Decoding Algorithm for Handwritten Word Recognition,
ICDAR11(192-196).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Reynaert, M.W.C.[Martin W.C.],
Character confusion versus focus word-based correction of spelling and OCR variants in corpora,
IJDAR(14), No. 2, June 2011, pp. 173-187.
WWW Version. 1106
BibRef

Murugappan, A.[Abirami], Ramachandran, B.[Baskaran], Dhavachelvan, P.,
A survey of keyword spotting techniques for printed document images,
AIR(35), No. 2, February 2011, pp. 119-136.
WWW Version. 1208
BibRef

Drira, F.[Fadoua], Le Bourgeois, F.[Frank], Emptoz, H.[Hubert],
A new PDE-based approach for singularity-preserving regularization: application to degraded characters restoration,
IJDAR(15), No. 3, September 2012, pp. 183-212.
WWW Version. 1209
BibRef
Earlier:
OCR Accuracy Improvement through a PDE-Based Approach,
ICDAR07(1068-1072).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Bilane, P., Bres, S., Emptoz, H.,
Local Orientation Extraction for Wordspotting in Syriac Manuscripts,
ICISP08(481-489).
Springer DOI Link 0807
BibRef

Hassan, E.[Ehtesham], Chaudhury, S.[Santanu], Gopal, M.,
Word shape descriptor-based document image indexing: A new DBH-based approach,
IJDAR(16), No. 3, September 2013, pp. 227-246.
WWW Version. 1309
BibRef

Wei, H.[Hongxi], Gao, G.[Guanglai],
A keyword retrieval system for historical Mongolian document images,
IJDAR(17), No. 1, March 2014, pp. 33-45.
WWW Version. 1403
BibRef


Fischer, A., Frinken, V., Bunke, H., Suen, C.Y.,
Improving HMM-Based Keyword Spotting with Character Language Models,
ICDAR13(506-510)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Aldavert, D., Rusinol, M., Toledo, R., Llados, J.,
Integrating Visual and Textual Cues for Query-by-String Word Spotting,
ICDAR13(511-515)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Krishnan, P., Jawahar, C.V.,
Bringing Semantics in Word Image Retrieval,
ICDAR13(733-737)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Shekhar, R., Jawahar, C.V.,
Document Specific Sparse Coding for Word Retrieval,
ICDAR13(643-647)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Dovgalecs, V., Burnett, A., Tranouez, P., Nicolas, S., Heutte, L.,
Spot It! Finding Words and Patterns in Historical Documents,
ICDAR13(1039-1043)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Oprean, C., Likforman-Sulem, L., Popescu, A., Mokbel, C.,
Using the Web to Create Dynamic Dictionaries in Handwritten Out-of-Vocabulary Word Recognition,
ICDAR13(989-993)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
Internet BibRef

Mondal, T., Ragot, N., Ramel, J.Y., Pal, U.,
A Fast Word Retrieval Technique Based on Kernelized Locality Sensitive Hashing,
ICDAR13(1195-1199)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Wang, P.[Peng], Eglin, V.[Véronique], Largeron, C.[Christine],
Exploring Interest Points and Local Descriptors for Word Spotting Application on Historical Handwriting Images,
CAIP13(II:408-415).
Springer DOI Link 1311
BibRef

Ajmera, J.[Jitendra], Deshmukh, O.D.[Om D],
Combining text and prosodic analysis for prominent word detection,
ICPR12(1534-1537).
WWW Version. 1302
BibRef

Fernandez, D., Llados, J.[Josep], Fornes, A.[Alicia], Manmatha, R.,
On Influence of Line Segmentation in Efficient Word Segmentation in Old Manuscripts,
FHR12(763-768).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Chaari, A.[Abir], Drira, F.[Fadoua], Alimi, A.M.[Adel M.], Egyed-Zsigmond, E.[Elod], Le Bourgeois, F.[Franck],
New Protocol Design for Wordspotting Assistance System: Case Study of the Collaborative Library Model - ARMARIUS,
FHR12(780-785).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Almazán, J.[Jon], Gordo, A.[Albert], Fornés, A.[Alicia], Valveny, E.[Ernest],
Handwritten Word Spotting with Corrected Attributes,
ICCV13(1017-1024)
IEEE DOI Link 1403
BibRef
Earlier:
Efficient Exemplar Word Spotting,
BMVC12(67).
DOI Link 1301
attibutes; cca; multi-writer; word spotting BibRef

Almazán, J.[Jon], Fernandez, D., Fornés, A.[Alicia], Llados, J.[Josep], Valveny, E.[Ernest],
A Coarse-to-Fine Approach for Handwritten Word Spotting in Large Scale Historical Documents Collection,
FHR12(455-460).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef

Palermo, F.[Frank], Hays, J.[James], Efros, A.A.[Alexei A.],
Dating Historical Color Images,
ECCV12(VI: 499-512).
Springer DOI Link 1210
BibRef

Lee, D.R.[Duk-Ryong], Hong, W.[Wonju], Oh, I.S.[Il-Seok],
Segmentation-free word spotting using SIFT,
Southwest12(65-68).
IEEE DOI Link 1205
BibRef

Genzel, D.[Dmitriy], Popat, A.C.[Ashok C.], Spasojevic, N.[Nemanja], Jahr, M.[Michael], Senior, A.[Andrew], Ie, E.[Eugene], Tang, F.Y.F.[Frank Yung-Fong],
Translation-Inspired OCR,
ICDAR11(1339-1343).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
Statistical Language model in OCR BibRef

Smith, R.[Ray],
Limits on the Application of Frequency-Based Language Models to OCR,
ICDAR11(538-542).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Praveen, M.S.[M. Sudha], Sankar, K.P.[K. Pramod], Jawahar, C.V.,
Character n-Gram Spotting in Document Images,
ICDAR11(941-945).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Colutto, S.[Sebastian], Gatos, B.[Basilis],
Efficient Word Recognition Using a Pixel-Based Dissimilarity Measure,
ICDAR11(1110-1114).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Gatos, B., Kesidis, A.L., Papandreou, A.,
Adaptive Zoning Features for Character and Word Recognition,
ICDAR11(1160-1164).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Kesidis, A.L., Gatos, B.,
Efficient Cut-Off Threshold Estimation for Word Spotting Applications,
ICDAR11(279-283).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Rusinol, M.[Marcal], Aldavert, D.[David], Toledo, R.[Ricardo], Llados, J.[Josep],
Browsing Heterogeneous Document Collections by a Segmentation-Free Word Spotting Method,
ICDAR11(63-67).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Saabni, R.[Raid], Bronstein, A.M.[Alexander M.],
Fast Keyword Searching Using 'BoostMap' Based Embedding,
FHR12(734-739).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
BibRef
Earlier:
Fast Key-Word Searching via Embedding and Active-DTW,
ICDAR11(68-72).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Wei, H.[Hongxi], Gao, G.L.[Guang-Lai], Bao, Y.[Yulai],
A Method for Removing Inflectional Suffixes in Word Spotting of Mongolian Kanjur,
ICDAR11(88-92).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Tsuruoka, S.[Shinji], Hattori, M.[Masahiro], bin Abdul Kadir, M.F.[Mohd Fadzil], Takano, T.[Toshiaki], Kawanaka, H.[Hiroharu], Takase, H.[Haruhiko], Miyake, Y.[Yasuji],
Personal Dictionaries for Handwritten Character Recognition Using Characters Written by a Similar Writer,
FHR10(599-604).
IEEE DOI Link 1011
BibRef

Kluzner, V.[Vladimir], Tzadok, A.[Asaf], Chevion, D.[Dan], Walach, E.[Eugene],
Hybrid Approach to Adaptive OCR for Historical Books,
ICDAR11(900-904).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Packer, E.[Eli], Tzadok, A.[Asaf], Kluzner, V.[Vladimir],
alpha-Shape Based Classification with Applications to Optical Character Recognition,
ICDAR11(344-348).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Kluzner, V.[Vladimir], Tzadok, A.[Asaf], Shimony, Y.[Yuval], Walach, E.[Eugene], Antonacopoulos, A.[Apostolos],
Word-Based Adaptive OCR for Historical Books,
ICDAR09(501-505).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Pletschacher, S.[Stefan], Hu, J.Y.[Jian-Ying], Antonacopoulos, A.[Apostolos],
A New Framework for Recognition of Heavily Degraded Characters in Historical Typewritten Documents Based on Semi-Supervised Clustering,
ICDAR09(506-510).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Quiniou, S.[Solen], Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Anquetil, E.[Eric],
Handling Out-of-Vocabulary Words and Recognition Errors Based on Word Linguistic Context for Handwritten Sentence Recognition,
ICDAR09(466-470).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Palshikar, G.K.[Girish Keshav],
Keyword Extraction from a Single Document Using Centrality Measures,
PReMI07(503-510).
Springer DOI Link 0712
BibRef

Kramer, M., Kaprykowsky, H., Keysers, D., Breuel, T.M.,
Bibliographic Meta-Data Extraction Using Probabilistic Finite State Transducers,
ICDAR07(609-613).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Taghva, K., Beckley, R., Coombs, J.,
Extracting 'Carbon Copy' Names and Organizations from a Heterogeneous Document Collection,
ICDAR07(664-668).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Wick, M., Ross, M., Learned-Miller, E.G.,
Context-Sensitive Error Correction: Using Topic Models to Improve OCR,
ICDAR07(1168-1172).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Li, L., Lu, S.J., Tan, C.L.,
A Fast Keyword-Spotting Technique,
ICDAR07(68-72).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Choisy, C.,
Dynamic Handwritten Keyword Spotting Based on the NSHP-HMM,
ICDAR07(242-246).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Banerjee, S.[Sameek], Harit, G.[Gaurav], Chaudhury, S.[Santanu],
Word image based latent semantic indexing for conceptual querying in document image databases,
ICDAR07(1208-1212).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Hamamura, T.[Tomoyuki], Akagi, T.[Takuma], Irie, B.[Bunpei],
Bayesian Best-First Search for Pattern Recognition: Application to Address Recognition,
ICDAR09(461-465).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Hamamura, T.[Tomoyuki], Akagi, T.[Takuma], Irie, B.[Bunpei],
An A Posteriori Probability Calculation Method for Analytic Word Recognition Applicable to Address Recognition,
ICDAR09(391-395).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef
Earlier:
An Analytic Word Recognition Algorithm Using a Posteriori Probability,
ICDAR07(669-673).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Lu, S., Tan, C.L.,
Keyword Spotting and Retrieval of Document Images Captured by a Digital Camera,
ICDAR07(994-998).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Miller, T.[Tristan], Wolf, E.[Elisabeth],
Word Completion with Latent Semantic Analysis,
ICPR06(I: 1252-1255).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Li, T.[Teng], Kweon, I.S.[In-So],
Measuring conceptual relation of visual words for visual categorization,
ICIP09(2057-2060).
IEEE DOI Link 0911
BibRef

Kim, S.[Sungho], Kweon, I.S.[In So],
Simultaneous Classification and Visual Word Selection using Entropy-based Minimum Description Length,
ICPR06(I: 650-653).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
BibRef

Terasawa, K.[Kengo], Nagasaki, T.[Takeshi], Kawashima, T.[Toshio],
Automatic Keyword Extraction from Historical Document Images,
DAS06(413-424).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef
Earlier:
Eigenspace method for text retrieval in historical document images,
ICDAR05(I: 437-441).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Lu, Y.[Yue], Zhang, L.[Li], Tan, C.L.,
Retrieving imaged documents in digital libraries based on word image coding,
DIAL04(174-187).
IEEE DOI Link 0404
BibRef

Lin, X.F.[Xiao-Fan],
Impact of imperfect OCR on part-of-speech tagging,
ICDAR03(284-288).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Lucas, S.M., Patoulas, G., Downton, A.C.,
Fast Lexicon-based word recognition in noisy index card images,
ICDAR03(462-466).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Sako, H.[Hiroshi], Furukawa, N.[Naohiro], Fujio, M.[Masakazu], Watanabe, S.[Shigeru],
Document-Form Identification Using Constellation Matching of Keywords Abstracted by Character Recognition,
DAS02(261 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303
BibRef

Bloomberg, D.S., Minka, T.P., Popat, K.,
Document image decoding using Iterated Complete Path search with subsampled heuristic scoring,
ICDAR01(344-349).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
Heuristics in decoding text line. BibRef

Manmatha, R., Srimal, N.,
Scale space technique for word segmentation in handwritten manuscripts,
ScaleSpace99(22-33). BibRef 9900

Kang, Y.B.[Yong-Bin], Ok, S.Y.[Se-Young], Cho, H.G.[Hwan-Gue],
Character Grouping Technique Using 3-D Neighborhood Graphs in Raster Map,
ICPR98(Vol II: 1092-1094).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Henry, J.L.[Jean-Luc],
Use of an Evolutive Base of Models in a System for Reading Printed Texts,
ICPR98(Vol I: 802-804).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Burl, M.C.[Michael C.], Perona, P.[Pietro],
Using Hierarchical Shape Models to Spot Keywords in Cursive Handwriting Data,
CVPR98(535-540).
IEEE Abstract. BibRef 9800

Özdil, M.A.[Mehmet Ali], Yarman-Vural, F.T.[Fatop T.], Arica, N.[Nafiz],
Optical Character Recognition Without Segmentation,
CIAP97(II: 608-615).
WWW Version. 9709
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1 Only: ICDAR97(483-486).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Navoni, L., Canegallo, R., Chinosi, M., Gozzini, G., Kramer, A., Rolandi, P.L.,
Word Recognition Using Associative Memory,
ICDAR97(97-101).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Ng, K.S., Cheng, L.M., Wong, C.H.,
Dynamic Word Based Text Compression,
ICDAR97(412-416).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Spitz, A.L.,
Moby Dick Meets GEOCR: Lexical Considerations in Word Recognition,
ICDAR97(221-226).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Malburg, M.,
Comparative Evaluation of Techniques for Word Recognition Improvement by Incorporation of Syntactic Information,
ICDAR97(784-787).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Nobile, N., Bergler, S., Suen, C.Y., Khoury, S.,
Language Identification of On-Line Documents Using Word Shapes,
ICDAR97(258-262).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Sibun, P., Reynar, J.,
Language Identification: Examining the Issues,
SDAIR96(125-135). BibRef 9600

Wood, S.L., Yao, X.[Xiaozhong], Krishnamurthi, K., Dang, L.,
Language Identification for Printed Text Independent of Segmentation,
ICIP95(III: 428-431).
IEEE DOI Link 9510
BibRef

Burge, M.[Mark], Monagan, G.[Gladys],
Extracting words and multi-part symbols in graphics rich documents,
CIAP95(533-538).
Springer DOI Link 9509
BibRef

Congedo, G., Dimauro, G., Impedovo, S., Pirlo, G., Sfregola, D.,
A robust analytical approach for handwritten word recognition,
CIAP95(594-599).
Springer DOI Link 9509
BibRef
Earlier:
Describing words by graphs,
CIAP95(515-520).
Springer DOI Link 9509
BibRef

Dimauro, G., Gerardi, G., Impedovo, S., Pirlo, G., Tegolo, D.,
Integration of a structural features-based preclassifier and a man-machine interactive classifier for a fast multi-stroke character recognition,
ICPR92(IV:190-194).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Harmalkar, S., Sinha, R.M.K.,
Integrating word level knowledge in text recognition,
ICPR90(I: 758-760).
IEEE DOI Link 9006
BibRef

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
Watermarks, Watermarking .


Last update:Apr 12, 2014 at 21:44:02