23.4 Character Recognition Systems

Chapter Contents (Back)
OCR. Character Recognition. Application, Character Recognition. A large number of character recognition papers appear in the ICPR proceedings every year. Most of these are not included here. Much more work is done on Chinese characters since printed (fixed) font recognition is generally a commercial operation.

23.4.1 Character Recognition Survey, Overview, Evaluations

Chapter Contents (Back)
Survey, OCR. OCR. Character Recognition. Evaluation, OCR.

Bledsoe, W.W., and Browning, I.,
Pattern Recognition and Reading by Machine,
EJCC59(225-232). BibRef 5900

Stevens, M.E.,
Automatic Character Recognition: A State of the Art Report,
NBSTechnical Tote, No. 112, 1961. BibRef 6100

Harmon, L.D.,
Automatic Recognition of Print and Script,
PIEEE(60), No. 10, October 1972, pp. 1165-1177. BibRef 7210

Kamentsky, L.A., and Liu, C.N.,
A Theoretical and Experimental Study of a Model for Pattern Recognition,
In: Computer and Info. SciencesSpartan, 1963, pp. 194-218. N-Tuple matching for OCR. BibRef 6300

Ledley, R.S.[Robert S.],
Special issue on Optical Character Recognition,
PR(2), No. 3, September 1970, pp. 145.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Niemann, H.[Heinrich],
Classification of characters by man and by machine,
PR(9), No. 4, 1977, pp. 173-179.
WWW Version. 0309
BibRef

Pavlidis, T., Mori, S., (Eds.)
Special Issue on Optical Character Recognition,
PIEEE(80), No. 7, July 1992, pp. 1027-1029.
IEEE Top Reference. BibRef 9207

Suen, C.Y.,
Character Recognition by Computer and Applications,
HPRIP86(569-586). BibRef 8600

Mantas, J.,
An Overview of Character Recognition Methodologies,
PR(19), No. 6, 1986, pp. 425-430.
WWW Version. Application, Character Recognition. BibRef 8600

Mantas, J.,
Methodologies in Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: A Brief Survey,
PR(20), No. 1, 1987, pp. 1-6.
WWW Version. 0309
Survey, OCR. BibRef

Eckhouse, R., (Editor)
Intelligent Character Recognition,
Computer(23), No. 6, June 1990, pp. 99-103. Survey, OCR Products. Product Survey. BibRef 9006

Trier, O.D., Jain, A.K., Taxt, T.,
Feature-Extraction Methods for Character-Recognition: A Survey,
PR(29), No. 4, April 1996, pp. 641-662.
WWW Version. Survey, OCR. BibRef 9604

Lopresti, D.P., Zhou, J.Y.,
Using Consensus Sequence Voting to Correct OCR Errors,
CVIU(67), No. 1, July 1997, pp. 39-47.
DOI Link 9707
BibRef

Li, Y.H., Lopresti, D.P., Nagy, G., Tomkins, A.,
Validation of Image Defect Models for Optical Character-Recognition,
PAMI(18), No. 2, February 1996, pp. 99-107.
IEEE DOI Link BibRef 9602

Nagy, G.[George], Clifford, B.[Bryan], Berg, A.[Andrew], Saunders, G.[Glenn], Lopresti, D.P.[Dan P.], Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.],
Camera-Based Ballot Counter,
ICDAR09(151-155).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Xiu, P.P.[Ping-Ping], Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.], Baird, H.[Henry], Nagy, G.[George], Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.],
Style-Based Ballot Mark Recognition,
ICDAR09(216-220).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.], Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.], Nagy, G.[George],
Ballot mark detection,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Wang, P.S.P., and Bunke, H., (Eds.)
Handbook on Optical Character Recognition and Document Image Analysis,
World ScientificPublishing, 1997. Referenced as BibRef 9700 OCRDIA97
WWW Version. Survey, OCR. BibRef

Lee, S.W.[Seong-Whan],
Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition,
IJDAR(2), No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-1. Issue Introduction BibRef 9900

Lorette, G.,
Handwriting Recognition or Reading? What is the Situation at the Dawn of the 3rd Millennium?,
IJDAR(2), No. 1, 1999, pp. 2-12. BibRef 9900

Rice, S.V.[Stephen V.], Nagy, G.[George], Nartker, T.A.[Thomas A.],
Optical Character Recognition: An Illustrated Guide to the Frontier,
KluwerMay 1999. ISBN 0-7923-8492-X.
WWW Version. BibRef 9905

Francesconi, E., Gori, M., Marinai, S., Soda, G.,
A serial combination of connectionist-based classifiers for OCR,
IJDAR(3), No. 3, 2001, pp. 160-168.
HTML Version. 0105
BibRef

Brundick, F.S., Brodeen, A.E.M.[Ann E.M.], Taylor, M.S.[Malcolm S.],
A statistical approach to the generation of a database for evaluating OCR software,
IJDAR(4), No. 3, 2002, pp. 170-176.
HTML Version. 0205
BibRef

Baird, H.S.[Henry S.], Coates, A.L.[Allison L.], Fateman, R.J.[Richard J.],
PessimalPrint: a reverse Turing test,
IJDAR(5), No. 2-3, April 2003, pp. 158-163.
HTML Version. 0308
BibRef
Earlier: A2, A1, A3: ICDAR01(1154-1158).
IEEE DOI Link 0109
BibRef

Fateman, R.J.[Richard J.],
More versatile scientific documents,
ICDAR97(1107-1110).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Fairhurst, M.C.[Michael C.], Rahman, A.F.R.[A. Fuad R.], Guest Editors,
Special issue on multiple classifiers for document analysis applications,
IJDAR(5), No. 4, July 2003, pp. 165.
HTML Version. 0308
BibRef

Jaeger, S., Liu, C.L., Nakagawa, M.,
The state of the art in Japanese online handwriting recognition compared to techniques in western handwriting recognition,
IJDAR(6), No. 2, 2003, pp. 75-88.
Springer DOI Link 0310
BibRef
Earlier: A1, A3, A2:
Comparing On-Line Recognition of Japanese and Western Script in Preparation for Recognizing Multi-Language Documents,
FHR02(84-89).
IEEE Top Reference. 0209
BibRef

Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.], Qiu, X.H.[Xiao-Hui],
Statistical image differences, degradation features, and character distance metrics,
IJDAR(6), No. 3, March 2004, pp. 146-153.
Springer DOI Link 0406
BibRef
Earlier:
Relating Statistical Image Differences and Degradation Features,
DAS02(1 ff.).
HTML Version. 0303
BibRef

Lucas, S.M.[Simon M.], Panaretos, A.[Alex], Sosa, L.[Luis], Tang, A.[Anthony], Wong, S.[Shirley], Young, R.[Robert], Ashida, K.[Kazuki], Nagai, H.[Hiroki], Okamoto, M.[Masayuki], Yamamoto, H.[Hiroaki], Miyao, H.[Hidetoshi], Zhu, J.M.[Jun-Min], Ou, W.W.[Wu-Wen], Wolf, C.[Christian], Jolion, J.M.[Jean-Michel], Todoran, L.[Leon], Worring, M.[Marcel], Lin, X.F.[Xiao-Fan],
ICDAR 2003 robust reading competitions: Entries, results, and future directions,
IJDAR(7), No. 2-3, July 2005, pp. 105-122.
Springer DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Lucas, S.M., Panaretos, A., Sosa, L., Tang, A., Wong, S., Young, R.,
ICDAR 2003 robust reading competitions,
ICDAR03(682-687).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Ink Markup Language: InkML,
Online2002. InkML.
WWW Version. InkML is an XML data format for representing digital ink data that is input with an electronic pen or stylus as part of a multimodal system. BibRef 0200

Unipen Project,
Online1994. Dataset, Handwriting.
WWW Version. This is a working group organized through IAPR to maintain and protect (ensure available to researchers) various databases of handwriting data. BibRef 9400

Simple OCR.,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. A free (shareware) executable. Code may be purchased for inclusion in your product.

Creative ICR Inc.,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. Forms processing.

Datacap,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. Forms processing and OCR products.

Novo Dynamics,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. Omnifont/multi-font OCR.

Adlib Software,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. Document conversion.

OmniPage,
2006
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. from Nuance. Standard OCR package.

Prime Recognition,
2006
HTML Version. Vendor, OCR.

ABBYY FineReader,
2007
WWW Version. Vendor, OCR. OCR products.

GOCR,
2002. Open Source OCR.
WWW Version. Code, OCR.

Google Tesseract-OCR,
1995 OCR originally developed at HP.
WWW Version. Code, OCR.

Smith, R.,
An Overview of the Tesseract OCR Engine,
ICDAR07(629-633).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Stubbe, A.[Andrea], Ringlstetter, C.[Christoph], Schulz, K.U.[Klaus U.],
Genre as noise: noise in genre,
IJDAR(10), No. 3-4, December 2007, pp. 199-209.
Springer DOI Link 0712
BibRef

Reffle, U.[Ulrich], Gotscharek, A.[Annette], Ringlstetter, C.[Christoph], Schulz, K.U.[Klaus U.],
Successfully detecting and correcting false friends using channel profiles,
IJDAR(12), No. 3, September 2009, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 0911
BibRef
Earlier: A3, A1, A2, A4:
Deriving Symbol Dependent Edit Weights for Text Correction: The Use of Error Dictionaries,
ICDAR07(639-643).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Gotscharek, A.[Annette], Reffle, U.[Ulrich], Ringlstetter, C.[Christoph], Schulz, K.U.[Klaus U.], Neumann, A.[Andreas],
Towards information retrieval on historical document collections: The role of matching procedures and special lexica,
IJDAR(14), No. 2, June 2011, pp. 159-171.
WWW Version. 1106
BibRef

Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Kharma, N.N.[Nawwaf N.], Liu, C.L.[Cheng-Lin], Suen, C.[Ching],
Character Recognition Systems: A Guide for Students and Practitioners,
WileyOctober 2007. ISBN: 978-0-471-41570-1.
HTML Version. Click to purchase this book 0905
BibRef

Kompalli, S.[Suryaprakash], Setlur, S.[Srirangaraj], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Devanagari OCR using a recognition driven segmentation framework and stochastic language models,
IJDAR(12), No. 2, July 2009, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 0906
BibRef
Earlier:
Design and Comparison of Segmentation Driven and Recognition Driven Devanagari OCR,
DIAL06(96-102).
IEEE DOI Link 0604
BibRef

Khedekar, S., Ramanaprasad, V., Setlur, S., Govindaraju, V.,
Text-image separation in Devanagari documents,
ICDAR03(1265-1269).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Kompalli, S.[Suryaprakash], Nayak, S.[Sankalp], Setlur, S.[Srirangaraj], Govindaraju, V.[Venu],
Challenges in OCR of Devanagari documents,
ICDAR05(I: 327-331).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], Bunke, H.[Horst], Hu, J.Y.[Jian-Ying], Kimura, F.[Fumitaka], Suen, C.Y.[Ching Y.],
New Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3129-3130.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
Special issue intro. BibRef

Cheriet, M.[Mohamed], El Yacoubi, M.[Mounim], Fujisawa, H.[Hiromichi], Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.], Lorette, G.[Guy],
Handwriting recognition research: Twenty years of achievement... and beyond,
PR(42), No. 12, December 2009, pp. 3131-3135.
Elsevier DOI Link 0909
BibRef

Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.],
Optical character recognition errors and their effects on natural language processing,
IJDAR(12), No. 3, September 2009, pp. xx-yy.
Springer DOI Link 0911
BibRef

Mirvaziri, H.[Hamid], Javidi, M.M.[Mohammad Masood], Mansouri, N.[Najme],
Handwriting Recognition Algorithm in Different Languages: Survey,
IVIC09(487-497).
Springer DOI Link 0911
Survey, Handwriting. BibRef

Bhatia, S.K.[Sanjiv K.], Samal, A.[Ashok], Rajan, N.[Nithin], Kiviniemi, M.T.[Marc T.],
Effect of font size, italics, and colour count on web usability,
IJCVR(2), No. 2, 2011, pp. 156-179.
DOI Link 1109
BibRef

Jayadevan, R., Kolhe, S.R., Patil, P.M., Pal, U.,
Offline Recognition of Devanagari Script: A Survey,
SMC-C(41), No. 6, November 2011, pp. 782-796.
IEEE DOI Link 1110
Survey, OCR. Survey, Devanagari. BibRef

Impedovo, S.[Sebastiano],
More than twenty years of advancements on Frontiers in handwriting recognition,
PR(47), No. 3, 2014, pp. 916-928.
Elsevier DOI Link 1312
Survey, Handwriting Recognition. Handwriting recognition BibRef


Ray, A., Chandawala, A., Chaudhury, S.,
Character Recognition Using Conditional Random Field Based Recognition Engine,
ICDAR13(18-22)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
document image processing BibRef

Goto, M., Ishida, R., Feng, Y., Uchida, S.,
Analyzing the Distribution of a Large-Scale Character Pattern Set Using Relative Neighborhood Graph,
ICDAR13(3-7)
IEEE DOI Link 1312
graph theory BibRef

Ye, P.[Peng], Doermann, D.[David],
Learning features for predicting OCR accuracy,
ICPR12(3204-3207).
WWW Version. 1302
BibRef

Njah, S.[Sourour], Ben Nouma, B.[Badreddine], Bezine, H.[Hala], Alimi, A.M.[Adel M.],
MAYASTROUN: A Multilanguage Handwriting Database,
FHR12(308-312).
IEEE DOI Link 1302
Dataset, Handwriting. BibRef

Hase, H.[Hiroyuki],
Quality Evaluation of Character Image Database and Its Application,
ICDAR11(1414-1418).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
Apply technique to large recent collection. BibRef

Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.], Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.], Nagy, G.[George], Wu, Z.[Ziyan],
Towards Improved Paper-Based Election Technology,
ICDAR11(1255-1259).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Barney Smith, E.H.[Elisa H.], Goyal, S.[Shatakshi], Scott, R.[Robbie], Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.],
Evaluation of Voting with Form Dropout Techniques for Ballot Vote Counting,
ICDAR11(473-477).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Pastor, M.[Moisés], Paredes, R.[Roberto],
Bi-modal Handwritten Text Recognition (BiHTR) ICPR 2010 Contest Report,
ICPR-Contests10(1-13).
Springer DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Pastor, M.[Moises], Toselli, A.H.[Alejandro Hector], Casacuberta, F.[Francisco], Vidal, E.[Enrique],
A Bi-modal Handwritten Text Corpus: Baseline Results,
ICPR10(1933-1936).
IEEE DOI Link 1008
BibRef

Lopresti, D.P.[Daniel P.], Zhou, X.[Xiang], Huang, X.L.[Xiao-Lei], Tan, G.[Gang],
Document Analysis Support for the Manual Auditing of Elections,
ICDAR09(733-737).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Santos, M.[Murilo], Ko, A.H.R.[Albert Hung-Ren], Oliveira, L.S.[Luis S.], Sabourin, R.[Robert], Koerich, A.L.[Alessandro L.], de Souza Britto, Jr., A.[Alceu],
Evaluation of Different Strategies to Optimize an HMM-Based Character Recognition System,
ICDAR09(666-670).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Louloudis, G.[Georgios], Stamatopoulos, N.[Nikolaos], Gatos, B.[Basilis],
A Novel Two Stage Evaluation Methodology for Word Segmentation Techniques,
ICDAR09(686-690).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Pérez, D.[Daniel], Tarazón, L.[Lionel], Serrano, N.[Nicolás], Castro, F.[Francisco], Terrades, O.R.[Oriol Ramos], Juan, A.[Alfons],
The GERMANA Database,
ICDAR09(301-305).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
Dataset, OCR. Handwritten Spanish manuscript from 1891. BibRef

Djioua, M.[Moussa], Plamondon, R.[Rejean],
An interactive system for the automatic generation of huge handwriting databases from a few specimens,
ICPR08(1-4).
IEEE DOI Link 0812
BibRef

Regmi, A.[Amit], Watt, S.M.[Stephen M.],
A Collaborative Interface for Multimodal Ink and Audio Documents,
ICDAR09(901-905).
IEEE DOI Link 0907
BibRef

Watt, S.M.,
New Aspects of InkML for Pen-Based Computing,
ICDAR07(457-460).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
InkML -- ink mark up languague. An XML specification. See also Ink Markup Language: InkML. BibRef

Keshari, B., Watt, S.M.,
Streaming-Archival InkML Conversion,
ICDAR07(1253-1257).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Schulz, K., Mihov, S., Mitankin, P.,
Fast Selection of Small and Precise Candidate Sets from Dictionaries for Text Correction Tasks,
ICDAR07(471-475).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Fujisawa, H.,
A View on the Past and Future of Character and Document Recognition,
ICDAR07(3-7).
IEEE DOI Link 0709
BibRef

Wong, A.K.S.[Alex K. S.], Lee, J.W.T.[John W. T.], Yeung, D.S.[Daniel S.],
Improving Text Classifier Performance based on AUC,
ICPR06(III: 268-271).
IEEE DOI Link 0609
AUC: Area under the ROC. BibRef

Li, L.L.[Lin-Lin], Tan, C.L.[Chew Lim],
Improving OCR Text Categorization Accuracy with Electronic Abstracts,
DIAL06(82-87).
IEEE DOI Link 0604
OCR with some prior knowledge, the abstract. BibRef

Kokawa, A.[Akihiro], Busagala, L.S.P.[Lazaro S.P.], Ohyama, W.[Wataru], Wakabayashi, T.[Tetsushi], Kimura, F.[Fumitaka],
An Impact of OCR Errors on Automated Classification of OCR Japanese Texts with Parts-of-Speech Analysis,
ICDAR11(543-547).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Luo, X.[Xi], Ohyama, W.[Wataru], Wakabayashi, T.[Tetsushi], Kimura, F.[Fumitaka],
A Study on Automatic Chinese Text Classification,
ICDAR11(920-924).
IEEE DOI Link 1111
BibRef

Murata, M.[Mayo], Busagala, L.S.P.[Lazaro S.P.], Ohyama, W.[Wataru], Wakabayashi, T.[Tetsushi], Kimura, F.[Fumitaka],
The Impact of OCR Accuracy and Feature Transformation on Automatic Text Classification,
DAS06(506-517).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Sankar, K.P.[K. Pramod], Ambati, V.[Vamshi], Pratha, L.[Lakshmi], Jawahar, C.V.,
Digitizing a Million Books: Challenges for Document Analysis,
DAS06(425-436).
Springer DOI Link 0602
BibRef

Agrawal, M., Bali, K., Madhvanath, S., Vuurpijl, L.,
UPX: a new XML representation for annotated datasets of online handwriting data,
ICDAR05(II: 1161-1165).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Lenaghan, A.P., Malyan, R.R.,
XPEN: an XML based format for distributed online handwriting recognition,
ICDAR03(1270-1274).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Mihov, S., Schulz, K.U., Ringlstetter, C., Dojchinova, V., Nakova, V., Kalpakchieva, K., Gerasimov, O., Gotscharek, A., Gercke, C.,
A corpus for comparative evaluation of OCR software and postcorrection techniques,
ICDAR05(I: 162-166).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Ringlstetter, C., Schulz, K.U., Mihov, S., Louka, K.,
The same is not the same: Postcorrection of alphabet confusion errors in mixed-alphabet OCR recognition,
ICDAR05(I: 406-410).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Strohmaier, C.M., Ringlstetter, C., Schulz, K.U., Mihov, S.,
Lexical postcorrection of OCR-results: The Web as a Dynamic Secondary Dictionary?,
ICDAR03(1133-1137).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Luo, X.P.[Xi-Ping], Zhen, L.X.[Li-Xin], Peng, G.[Gang], Li, J.[Jun], Xiao, B.H.[Bai-Hua],
Camera based mixed-lingual card reader for mobile device,
ICDAR05(II: 665-669).
IEEE DOI Link 0508
BibRef

Luo, X.P.[Xi-Ping], Li, J.[Jun], Zhen, L.X.[Li-Xin],
Design and implementation of a card reader based on build-in camera,
ICPR04(I: 417-420).
IEEE DOI Link 0409
BibRef

Simard, P.Y., Szeliski, R., Benaloh, J., Couvreur, J., Calinov, I.,
Using character recognition and segmentation to tell computer from humans,
ICDAR03(418-423).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Nagy, G.,
Teaching a computer to read,
ICPR92(II:225-229).
IEEE DOI Link 9208
BibRef

Nagy, G.,
Advanced character recognition 6610,
ICDAR01(2-6). 0109
BibRef

Ratzlaff, E.H.,
Methods, report and survey for the comparison of diverse isolated character recognition results on the UNIPEN database,
ICDAR03(623-628).
IEEE Abstract. 0311
BibRef

Aksoy, S., Ye, M., Schauf, M., Song, M., Wang, Y., Haralick, R.M., Parker, J.R., Pivovarov, J., Royko, D., Sun, C., Farnebäck, G.,
Algorithm Performance Contest,
ICPR00(Vol IV: 870-876).
IEEE DOI Link 0009
3 problems: Binary Shape, Symbol Recogniton, and Image Flow. BibRef

di Lecce, V., Dimauro, G., Guerriero, A., Impedovo, S., Pirlo, G., Salzo, A.,
A new database of confusing characters for testing character recognition algorithms,
CIAP99(939-944).
IEEE DOI Link 9909
BibRef

Mao, J.[Jianchang], Sinha, P.[Prasun],
Combining Multiple OCRs for Optimizing Word Recognition,
ICPR98(Vol I: 436-438).
IEEE DOI Link 9808
BibRef

Miletzki, U.,
Character Recognition in Practice Today and Tomorrow,
ICDAR97(902-907).
IEEE DOI Link 9708
BibRef

Guyon, I., Schomaker, L.R.B., Plamondon, R., Liberman, M., Janet, S.,
UNIPEN project of on-line data exchange and recognizer benchmarks,
ICPR94(B:29-33).
IEEE DOI Link 9410
BibRef

Schuermann, J.,
Reading Machines,
ICPR82(xx). BibRef 8200

Chapter on OCR, Document Analysis and Character Recognition Systems continues in
General Character Recognition Issues .


Last update:Jul 18, 2014 at 17:05:25